A Research Proposal on The Impact of Leadership Styles of Employee Satisfaction, a Case Study on the Educational System of Liberia ABSTRACT
Running Head The Impact of Leadership Styles of Employee Satisfaction, A Case Study on the Educational System of Liberia
AResearch Proposal on The Impact of Leadership Styles of EmployeeSatisfaction, a Case Study on the Educational System of Liberia
Thispaper presents a research proposal on impact of leadership styles onemployee satisfaction a case study on educational systems inLiberia. The paper wishes to evaluate the effects caused byleadership styles on workers satisfaction in Liberian educationalsector. The proposal lays an emphasis on transformational andtransactional leadership styles. However, other leadership styles arebriefly discussed. Different aspects of workers satisfaction arediscussed such as: productivity, absenteeism, willingness to taketeaching as a course, ability to handle educational matters,transparency with administration and general life satisfaction. Thefollowing research questions are raised in the paper: what aredifferent leadership styles used in work places? How do transactionaland transformational leadership affect workers satisfaction? What isthe role of educational systems in enforcing leadership styles ineducation institutions? How do universities regulate workersoperations within educational systems? What are the impacts of workenvironments on employee’s job satisfaction? How leadership stylesdoes relates to USA and Liberia education system? The paper usesdescriptive approach where qualitative data is analyzed. Descriptiveresearch suits this proposal as the aim is to collect views onleadership styles and job satisfaction. The paper wishes to examinestaff in the education sector where a sample of 100 workers will becollected to represent the total population. The methods of datacollection to be used in the study includes Structured andunstructured questionnaires with likert scales ranging from stronglyagree to strongly disagree. The use of questionnaire is appropriatesince it’s simple to design and comprehensive to the targetpopulation. Various hypotheses are formulated which are meant toevaluate different aspects of leadership styles and job satisfaction.The hypotheses will be tested once the study is complete. Otherresearchers views on the the topic are examined in chapter two of thepaper to support that it’s relevant.
1.0 INTRODUCTION 4
1.1 Background of the study 4
1.2 Statement of problem 5
1.3 General objectives 5
1.4 Research questions 5
1.5 Hypotheses 6
1.6 Justification of the study 6
1.7 Scope of the study 7
2.0 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Theoretical review 7
2.1.1 Contingency leadership theory 7
2.1.2 Transactional theory 8
2.1.3 Trait theory 8
2.2 Application of theories in employee’s job satisfaction 9
2.3 Leadership styles 9
2.3.1 Transactional leadership style 9
2.3.2 Transformational leadership style 10
2.4.1 Autocratic leadership style 11
2.4.2 Visionary leadership 12
2.4.3 Democratic leadership styles 13
2.5 Work environments 13
2.6 Leadership styles used in American educational systems 14
2.7 Impacts of current education system to application of leadership styles 14
2.8 Regulations of worker’s operations in educational systems 15
2.9 Summary 15
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 16
3.0 Introduction 16
3.1 Research design 16
3.2 Target population 16
3.3 Sampling design 17
3.3.1 Sampling frame 17
3.3.2 Sampling technique 17
3.4 Data collection methods 17
4 References 18
1.0INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the study
Achievementof any organization’s goals basically depends on leadership. Thetop managers are responsible for making decisions in an organizationand to steer the organization’s decisions. Depending with thefunction of the organization, leaders employ different styles tomanage their operations. The definition of the term leadership isdiverse and have been defined to fit different circumstances. Forinstance, leadership is defined according to the impact it has oneconomic performance podolny et al (2004). On the other hand,leadership styles are defined based on their correlation with joboutcome and workers’ productivity in their tasks (limsila 2008).The different leadership styles examined in this study include: democratic, visionary leadership, autocraticand transactional leadership styles. These styles have a huge impactin employee’s job satisfaction and outcome. Logically, when aworker is satisfied in his/her place of work, they become motivatedto perform their duties perfectly even with minimum supervision.Leaders should therefore adopt effective styles that impacts theirworkers positively. This paper is structured to cover differentaspects of workers satisfaction in education sector in Liberia..
1.2 Statement of problem
Educationsystems in different countries use different leadership styles toregulate the operations of institutions under their control. Some ofthese leadership styles seem to work well in various institutionswhile some usually have a negative impact on the institutions theyare employed in. this provides the basis of this proposal to examinethe impacts of leadership styles on the level of job satisfactionin Liberian educational systems.
1.3 General objectives
Themain objective is to discuss the impact caused by employment ofleadership styles to workers job satisfaction in education system.The paper also wish to provide a clear comparison of leadershipstyles used in America and those used in Liberia.
1.4 Research questions
What are different leadership styles used in work places?
How do transactional and transformational leadership affect workers satisfaction?
what is the role of educational systems in enforcing leadership styles in education institutions?
How do universities regulate workers operations within educational systems?
how does leadership styles relates to USA and Liberia education system?
What are the impacts of work environments on employee’s job satisfaction?
Followingthe research questions raised above, the following hypotheses areformulated:
H0:leadership styles do not have an impact on employee’s jobsatisfaction
HA:leadership styles have an impact on employees’ job satisfaction
H0:current education system does not influence the use of leadershipstyles
HA:current education system influences the use of education styles
H0:leadership styles used in America are not better than those used inLiberia
HA:leadership styles in American systems are better than those inLiberian educational system
H0:work environments does not influence workers satisfaction
HA:work environments have an influence in job satisfaction
1.6 Justification of the study
Thestudy will help evaluate how different styles affect work placesatisfaction and therefore recommend the suitable styles that shouldbe used in Liberian education systems for two purposes:
Establish good relations with workers to enhance job satisfaction and security
Ensure that education systems operate effectively and achieves their set objectives
1.7 Scope of the study
Thestudy will include the ministry of education and various universitiesto establish the impacts of leadership styles on workerssatisfaction.
2.0CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Thischapter gives both theoretical and critical literature review.Various theories of leadership in education sectors are analyzed togive a good argument concerning employment of leadership styles ineducational systems. Key words are defined and work done by otherindividuals revisited. Different leadership styles used in mostorganizations are discussed in details. A summary of this chapter islater done at the end.
2.1 Theoretical review2.1.1 Contingency leadershiptheory
Thistheory argues out that leadership does not follow a specific patternand leadership styles used should be flexible to suit differentsituations. The theory implies that a good leader should be ready toadjust to different work situations to fit the demands of hisfollowers. According to Lussier and Achua (2015), leadership theoriesshould develop critical thinking in a person. One may have goodperformance in a certain field but record poor performance when takento a different field. Leadership styles employed should be based onfollower’s responses. When the followers fail to appreciate thetype of leadership style employed on them, the leader should try adifferent strategy which leads to follower’s satisfaction.
2.1.2 Transactional theory
Thistheory evaluates the relationship between leaders and theirfollowers. The theory argues out that there should be mutual benefitsbetween the leader and the follower and no one should take advantageof another. This theory works when a leader finds a way to reward hisfollowers. The opposite is also true as a leader should beresponsible and punish his followers when they fail to perform theirduties. The environment in which the two operate should be fair toboth parties to avoid inefficiencies caused by one safeguarding theirpersonal interests at the expense of others. Relevance of this theoryin educational systems is discussed by Cai (2008).
2.1.3 Trait theory
Thetrait theory suggests that personal attributes impacts the emergenceof leadership (Colbert et al 2012). Itargues out that leaders are born with special attributes which enablethem to excel in their fields of work. Some of these qualitiesinclude: intelligence, creativity, and command among other traits.Physical and social attributes are emphasized in this theory.Logically, a good leader has an ability to understand the demands ofhis followers and use his attributes to adopt a good strategy thatsuits them.
2.2 Application of theories inemployee’s job satisfaction
Thesetheories were and still are relevant today. Leaders are expected tobe flexible before adopting any strategy. The demands andsatisfaction of workers in their work place is paramount andemployers should ensure that the method they adopt in assigning tasksshould be friendly. The theories emphasizes on good relations betweenleaders and followers rather than autocracy where one has absoluteauthority over their subjects.
2.3 Leadership styles
Thereare many leadership styles used by different organizations to leadtheir subjects. However, this paper lays emphasis on transformationaland transactional leadership styles in relation to educationalsystems and job satisfaction. other leadership styles are alsodiscussed briefly.
2.3.1 Transactional leadershipstyle
Transactionalleadership styles are commonly used to ensure that there is a goodflow of organization’s operations. Leaders use their authority todesign policies and incentives that motivate their employees to yieldbetter results. A transactional leader usually motivates his workersby rewarding those with high productivity and excellence performance.Inthis type of leadership style, Managers and workers work together insetting up goals of the organization. Workers agrees to follow ordersfrom the manager to facilitate realization of the set goals. Once theleader assign various tasks to the workers, he receives feedbackregularly from the workers and review their performance where he hasthe authority to reward or punish them. The ultimate goal of thisstyle is to ensure that workers are motivated to achieveorganization’s objectives as well as enhance good relations withtheir employers. This style is common in education systems. Forinstance, a teacher’s performance is evaluated and those withexcellence results are rewarded by the administration. Anorganization working under this style is likely to increase workerssatisfaction and motivation (Chaudhry and javed 2012)
Advantagesof transactional leadership
Transactionalleadership is mostly preferred due to its ability to adjust toworkers needs as well as organizational needs more quickly.Transactional leaders are capable of handling issues that buildstrong reputations to customers as well as ensuring that workers’productivity is not affected.
Applicationsof transactional leadership
Transactionalleadership is usually effective in running operations in mostorganizations. For instance, front-line supervision of workers withlow salaries requires transactional leadership. These workers need tobe motivated to achieve their targets for the purpose of promotingthem to another level. In education systems, teachers on practicerequires close supervision to ensure that they are able to handletheir students effectively. On the other hand, the ministry ofeducation should ensure that they make policies which are meant toprovide a conducive environment for education institutions to excel.
2.3.2 Transformational leadershipstyle
Leadershipis diverse in nature. Transformational leadership is relevant as faras management of project-based organizations is concerned Keegan andDen (2004. Transformationalleadership is not only concerned by day-to-day management oforganizations but also a higher level of workers performance andsuccess. A transformational leader designs strategies that emphasizeon team building and collaboration with workers to accomplishcompany’s goals and objectives. Decision making is based on leadersbelief that certain methods will achieve organization’s objectivesas well as provide opportunities for worker’s growth.
Advantagesof transformational leadership
Transformationalleadership plays a vital role in in developing small businesses. Itusually lead to achievement of organization’s success throughcooperation of workers and team-building which eventually leads tohigher productivity in employees.
Transformationalleadership plays a critical role in different organizations. Forinstance, the CEO’s in educational systems need to betransformational for them to be able to communicate and formulatepolicies applicable to educational institutions.
other leadership styles
2.4.1 Autocratic leadership style
Autocracyin leadership gives the leader absolute power in determiningdirections of a certain operation. The managers make their owndecisions without consulting their workers. The decision made by themanager is final and irrevocable. This type of leadership style ismost appropriate for workers without specific skills who requireclose supervision to perform their tasks effectively. Highly skilledworkers dislike this style as they can make realistic decisions ontheir own without a manager’s guidelines. Autocratic leadershipdetermines workers emotions and motivation (DeCremer 2006). Autocratic leadership style is mainly used in dictatorial governmentssuch as North Korea and Uganda where the president regulates theworking of all sectors in the country. It is usually associated withlow job satisfaction and consequently low productivity. Mosteducational systems does not employ this type of leadership styleunless in extreme cases where it becomes appropriate depending on thesituation.
2.4.2 Visionary leadership
Thisstyle is the most flexible form of leadership and effective style.Visionary leaders can employ any other leadership style depending ondifferent situations. To be precise, visionary leadershipincorporates all other leadership styles in executing organizationaljudgments. The best course of action is employed based on leader’sbelief that it will yield good results. Organization’s goals andobjectives remain paramount as far as this style is concerned andmanagers can use any style to accomplish a mission. Educationalsystems requires a visionary leader especially when student’sinterests are concerned. A visionary leader in this case must ensurethat staff members in educational systems are satisfied with thedecision made by the administration as well as perform their taskseffectively to attain the set goals. Employment of visionaryleadership style in educational institutions have a higher capabilityof increasing
2.4.3 Democratic leadershipstyles
Inthis method, leaders are the final decision makers. However, theyallow views from their subjects to make realistic decisions. Thefollowers are encouraged to contribute in decision-making process andare engaged in performing various tasks in their preferred fields.Democratic leadership is highly associated with employee’s jobsatisfaction and good performance. Employees are free to interactwith their leaders and air their grievances without fear of losingtheir jobs. This style is commonly used in educational institutionswhere teachers collaborate with their seniors in making realisticdecisions. Teachers views on what their students requires to improvetheir grades are highly valued. However, democratic leadership maynot work effectively when quick decisions are required. In this case,the leader makes necessary decisions without consulting anyone. Thedecision made lies within the interests of the workers and theorganization at large. According to Bhatti et al (2012), democraticleadership usually have a positive impact on job satisfaction topublic teachers rather than private ones
2.5 Work environments
Theenvironment under which a person works greatly determines their levelof job satisfaction. According to Rossberg et al (2004), workenvironments have profound effects on workers satisfaction. Anenvironment can be regarded to as good or bad depending on factorssuch as: job compensation, working hours, relations between worker,fellow employees, seniors and clients. The facilities available to aworker necessary for completing the assigned tasks also dictates thelevel of job satisfaction. An employee receiving high salary withoutany additional work hours is expected to have higher job satisfactionthan those workers with low salaries and additional work hours.Leadership styles also influences the work environment. Autocraticleadership may lead to workers working overtime to achieve a specifictarget set by the employer. Workers will find this as an exploitationof their rights and are expected to have low job satisfaction. A goodworking environment motivates employees and consequently increasestheir productivity. On the other hand, a bad working environmentconstrains workers ability to demonstrate their potential. The workenvironment therefore can have a positive impact or a negative impacton workers satisfaction.
2.6 Leadership styles used inAmerican educational systems
Themost common leadership styles used in American systems are usuallydirective, charismatic and participative in nature. These stylesemphasize on team work and participation in decision making processfor effective running of organization’s operations. Americansystems adore trustworthiness and workers responsibilities to performassigned tasks. Managers in United States believe that their successin running business organizations basically depends on qualifiedemployees. Differences in cultures therefore dictates leadershipstyles employed in different organizations. For instance, Asianorganizations are usually family based where transactional leadershipstyles are commonly used. African systems in contrast use autocraticleadership styles where leaders make decisions without consultationof their workers. The differences in employment of leadership stylestherefore dictate the level of employee’s job satisfaction indifferent countries.
2.7 Impacts of currenteducation system to application of leadership styles
Educationsystems in different countries usually influence application ofleadership styles in different institutions. According to Voon et al(2011), leaders influence decisions of their subjects for the purposeof attaining set goals. The government and the ministry of educationwork hand in hand to formulate polices used in learning institutions.Democratic governments usually involves parliament in making oramending educational bills while autocratic governments makedecisions through the ministry of education without legislatureinterventions. The ministries responsible are capable of influencingleadership styles to be used in learning institutions thereforeinfluencing employees’ job satisfaction.
2.8 Regulations of worker’soperations in educational systems
Eachand every organization is responsible for directing its operations.Basically, learning institutions in Liberia employ differentleadership styles based on their set objectives. However, theministry of education and government at large influences the extentto which these styles are applied. Worker’s job satisfaction isbased on the method of governance used in their organizations.
Thischapter has discussed various theories relating to leadership stylesused in different organizations. It has critically discussed howthese theories and leadership styles are employed in educationalsystems and their impact on job satisfaction. The work environmentsalso plays a critical role in determining the level of employee’sjob satisfaction. The extent to which universities manage theiroperations have also been explored and the impact on workerssatisfaction evaluated. The chapter also evaluates various leadershipstyles used in different countries and their impacts to the level ofjob satisfaction.
CHAPTER3: METHODOLOGY3.0 Introduction
Thischapter explores the methodology to be used in the study. Differentmethods of data collection to be used are discussed.
3.1 Research design
Researchdesign aims at guiding data collection methods to be used andanalysis of results. Descriptive research is used in this study whereother researcher’s views are examined to establish relationshipsbetween leadership styles and job satisfaction. In this paper,qualitative data is collected to collect workers views on leadershipstyles on job satisfaction. Questionnaires with five likert scalesare designed to weigh different perspectives of the two majorleadership styles on job satisfaction. The research also wish tointerview certain key workers and record their response in a researchbook for reference.
3.2 Target population
Totalpopulation meant for this study includes all workers in educationalsystems and universities. A sample of 100 workers will be selectedfrom the ministry of education to represent the total population..
3.3 Sampling design3.3.1 Sampling frame
Asampling frame is a list of things in a particular population where asample is generated from. The sampling frame to be used in thisresearch comprises of all workers in the ministry of education anduniversities in Liberia.
3.3.2 Sampling technique
Insampling, a group of items is selected to represent total populationresearched on. This study will use simple random sampling methodwhere members in the ministry of education will have equal chances ofbeing selected. A sample of 100 workers will be selected.
3.4 Data collection methods
Descriptiveresearch usually employs close ended questionnaires to collectprimary data. However, workers opinions on leadership styles used intheir work place are also crucial. The study therefore will have bothopen ended and close ended questionnaires. The questions should besimple concise to avoid misunderstandings. Close ended questionnairesincludes a likert scale ranging from strongly agree to stronglydisagree. The questionnaires are effective as the workers will fillin the questions at ease and give brief descriptions about theirviews in the case of open ended questionnaires. various key workerswill be interviewed and their response recorded in a research book.
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