Inflammatorybowel disease is a persistent, recurring pathogenic disorder. Studieslink microflora in the intestine with the pathogens of IBD1.This flora offers conditioning effect for homeostasis in the ileum.They also deliver signals for regulations to the epithelium, theimmune system of mucus as well as the neuromuscular activities of thestomach. There has been a research gap in the treatment of thisdisease for a long time. Researchers have attempted to investigatethe treatment and prevention of IBD, though the evidence in supportof such studies remains controversial. This paper presents a detailedsynopsis of the research conducted to determine if probiotics areuseful at all levels of curing IBD.
Researchersemployed meta-analysis and randomized controlled trials to determinethe efficacy of probiotics in managing IBD. The trials focused onhow probiotics causes remission and facilitates the treatment ofulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and Pouchitis1.The investigators recruited 1763 individuals to participate inrandomized controlled trials. They made comparisons betweenprobiotics and controls in managing the disease, then recorded thedata with links to remission rates and recurrence rate. Theyconducted independent sub-analysis as well.
Probioticswere found to be therapeutic in inducing remission of UlcerativeColitis1.When the IBD remissions were maintained with probiotic, relapse wasreduced. The findings lend credence to the evidence that probioticsare both preventive and curative to IBD as well as in the control ofpouchitis.
Theresearch had weaknesses in biased publications, using only threetrials for the analysis of CD remission rates, and failure to applysub-analysis since the studies were heterogeneous. As such, futureshould endeavor to be as rigorous as possible to confirm the findingshere.
Shen, J., Zuo, Z. X., & Mao, A. P: Effect of probiotics on inducing remission and maintaining Therapy in ulcerative colitis, Crohn`s disease, and pouchitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Inflammatory bowel diseases, January 2014 20(1): 21-35. Available from: ww.ibdjournal.org, Accessed April 10, 2017.
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Women often experience a lotof stress after giving birth. A significant number of younger mothersare at a higher risk of depression during the postpartum. Thisresearch examined the socio-demographic factors that account for theafter-birth depression. Factors such as birth outcomes, medical andmental illness before pregnancy, risky health attitudes, and mentalstress were studied as predictors of postpartum depression. The studyidentified both medical and socio-demographic factors which areuseful for nurses to consider when dealing with cases of depressionin expectant females. This paper purposes to critically examine thestudy by looking at the research question, design, data collection,results, and summarize the strengths and weakness of the findings.
Does socio-demographic andclinical risk factors predispose women to the postpartum depression?The research question gives a direct approach to the topic. Theafter-birth depression is a widespread occurrence for girls and womenwho have to bear with unwanted pregnancies. They suffer neglect,anxiety, and complications when giving birth (Katon W.et al.,2014).
The researchers providedquestionnaires to females who were getting obstetrical care at theUniversity of Washington. Pregnant mothers filled the questionnairesin their second and third semesters, with others completing them atthe fourth and eighth month of expectancy as well as at the sixthweek of postpartum. Teenagers below fifteen years were omitted fromthe study. The completed forms were consented by the clinicians, withan informed consent linking the medical records with the responses(Katon W. etal., 2014).
The questionnaire was suitedfor this research since the researchers had sampled well the targetgroup. The group in the urban and at the University were literateenough to read, understand and record their informed responses.
However, this researchmethodology was weak as the busy urban setting hindered a section ofthe sampled participants from completing the questionnaires in time.This limited the number of data to be analyzed.
The researchers sampled 3,039women at their fourth and eighth month of pregnancy. 1,515 of themwere left out due to a missing postpartum observation. Another 84females were ignored after they only completed the eight-monthquestionnaire. It left 1,423 expectant women receiving clinicalattention at an obstetrics facility in a University (Katon W.et al.,2014).
The original sample size wasrepresentative and therefore, strong enough for this intent. Theexclusions as the study carried reduced the strength of theconclusion to support the hypothesis. As many responses as possibleare needed for this kind of quantitative research.
The clinical staff gave thesampled population questionnaire as part of their medical programs.The completed forms were collected by the clinicians and respectivehealth records of the patients linked to the responses assessing thesymptoms of depression (Katon W.et al.,2014).
Ethical considerations wereobserved by allowing the University of Washington Human SubjectsInstitutional Review Board to approve all the procedures. The surveywas also conducted through the clinicians, which point gaps in itscredibility since the medical providers are likely to influence theresponses of their patients.
Limitationsof the study
The selection of only onelarge University in a specific geographical area limited therepresentative aspect of the research. It failed to apply structuredinterviews to assess the past mental behaviors of the participants.Additionally, women who regularly develop postpartum depression atthe third month were missed in the sample.
Future studies on the topicshould target more than one health University facilities to improveon the representativeness of the research.
Younger women recordedsignificantly higher symptoms of after-birth depression. This was thesimilar case with those with financial instability, had stress andanxiety during expectancy, as well as prior mental behaviors.Postpartum depression was also high recorded for mothers who had usedantidepressants when pregnant. The results answer the researchquestions effectively as both social and medical factors proves tocause postpartum depression (Katon W.et al.,2014).
The study is, therefore,credible because the results are vital for nurses in helping mothersdeal with the increased depressions after delivery.
Postpartum depression hasaffected women for many years. As the research question posed andconfirmed in the findings, the social aspect of the populations trulyexpose the pregnant. Young women who are unemployed, neglected in thesocial strata are highly likely to get affected after delivery. Also,prolonged physical ailments before pregnancy, psychological stressorsas well as neurological complications were found to contribute to thepresence of depression in lactating mothers.
The study is a step in theright direction for nurses and the medical fraternity at large incontaining postpartum depression. The results point that doctors andnurse can use the risk factors in primary care.
In conclusion, the depressionwitnessed in lactating mothers is caused by both socio-demographicand clinical factors. These factors start early before gettingpregnant and proceeds during pregnancy.
Katon, W., Russo, J., & Gavin, A. (2014). Predictors ofpostpartum depression. Journal of Women`s Health (15409996), 23(9),753-759. doi:10.1089/jwh.2014.4824. (7 p.)
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