Case Study on Struggling Reader
CaseStudy on Struggling Reader
CaseStudy on Struggling Reader
Unlikevisiting a doctor when one is sick, learners who experiencechallenges while reading suffer a great deal. Healthcarepractitioners have a particular routine that they use to identify aproblem and solve it, which is contrary to the situation of astruggling reader. Such learners fail to recognize both the sourceand the solution to their problem. It is also difficult to recognizea competent reading teacher who can not only diagnose theirdifficulties in reading, but also provide prescription as well ascorrection. Meanwhile, a diagnostic reading test differs from othertypes of tests in various ways. Firstly, it comprises of huge subsetsof both items and scores. Secondly, the items are directed towardsmeasuring specific skills. Lastly, it has lower difficulty, henceproviding adequate discrimination among reading-challenged learners.However, through diagnostic teaching, an expert is able to engage astudent encountering reading difficulties to instructional strategiesincluding method of feedback and even presentation as well asmaterial. It is the duty of the teacher to continuously assess thestudent via inventories and different diagnostic instruments toachieve the intended results. Because of the need to perceive thereasons behind struggling reading, it is important to evaluate thecase of English as a second language (ESL) student, who has proved tohave some difficulties in reading.
Backgroundof the Student
BrianMiller is an 8 years old, third grade student from Ghana who attendsa homeschool. The intrusion period with the student was 5 times fromJanuary 23 to 28, 2017.
Asa homeschooled student, Brian is not only outgoing, but also bright.His mother engages him in all learning activities while at home.Precisely, Brian has never attended any regular school, hence havingno record to define his grade. At home, Brian also has a youngersister Eve. She is also homeschooled, but reading seventh-grade levelmaterials. The members of the family are together most of the times,especially because home is their children’s school. Both Brian likecooking, playing video games and also reading. The mother also enjoysreading aloud to both of her children at least twice per day. Thehome is filled with books of all kinds it is evident that the familyhas decided to make their home as school-like as possible. Brianloves reading different books it is a trait that he got from hismother.
Further,all through the testing session, Brian showed total cooperation.However, although he likes reading, it was difficult for him to readmaterials that he had little interest on, an approach that threatenedhis educational life. School materials are diverse hence Brian hadno option of choosing the ones to and not read. He also likes readingsilence-related content. He wants to become a scientist. Whiletesting his skills of reading comprehension regarding expositorypassages, Brian was able to respond to the questions knowledge andinterest. Nevertheless, he himself recognized his poor readingskills, especially because he has to choose what to read. Brian’saspiration is to have a high reading potential like Eve.
Apparently,Brian has different motives, but the main one is the current topic.He will reveal high concentration when approached with a topic thatappeals him, but maintain silence when the discussion topic isboring. It is difficult for him to concentrate on issues that areuninteresting. Brian’s primary interest is playing games as well asrecreating new things. He would destroy something and tend to rebuildit once again. However, he enjoys when someone reads to him,especially extensive storybooks. Brian also talked much on issuesthat correlate with planets and weather. His interest can be tracedback to his potential future career and the interest on readingtechnology and astronomy-related materials. Brian’s favoritesubjects are science and math, which also portrays his interests onbeing a scientist. When approached on issues of science, especiallyweather, Brian responded with high interest.
Inaddition, considering his attitudes, Brian is more concerned aboutlearning to read. For instance, his rate of cooperation, which isrevealed in the effort of engaging in multiple activities, is highlyencouraging. Therefore, his goal to become a fluent as well as amotivated reader should be both encouraged and supported.
Firstly,Brian’s visual activity is intact. He has effective eyesight. Everyyear, his parents take him and his sister for eye check. The resultof 2016, however, shows that his eyes are well. For instance, in thefirst day of our meeting, Brian was able to read aloud a tiny printedmaterial. In other reading activities, Brian showed high eyecompetency. Precisely, he is more than protective of his eyes. Atsome point, Brian started to neglect the books, which weretiny-printed arguing that the letters are small. Therefore, it isessential for his eyes to be reexamined to identify whether it couldbe the source of his difficulty. On the other hand, while reviewingauditory acuity, Brian revealed no sign of hearing problems. I triedto examine his hearing strength, through the production of regularsounds. He was able to identify the sounds both from his right andleft ear. Also, from the reading activities, Brian was able torespond appropriately to questions, which indicated his effectivehearing. Clearly, Brian did not show an indication of anyphysical-related problems that would affect his reading skills. Hewas physically fit.
Analysisof the Assessment(s)
InformalReading Inventory (IRI)
IRIis an effective instrument that applies mostly on English nativespeaker’s students. For five days, January 23 to 28, 2017, Brianwas subjected to the instrument. Selections were employed from thefirst form, which held context graded words, the second form testingdirect reading and the last form that tested his listening skills.Precisely, a type of reading checklist, which Ezra Stieglitzinvented, was utilized in the assessment. It consists of varioussections, which include Graded Words in Isolation Test in two-formdesign, Graded Words in Context Test in the same design, DictatedStory Assessment Strategy, and Graded Reading Passages Test in afour-form design for examining reading performance. To begin with,the results of the Graded Words in Context Test are obtained, whichthen feeds the Graded Reading Passages Test with relevantinformation. Next, the results obtained from the Graded Words inIsolation Test produce information that applies in the determiningBrian’s level of sight words as well as the capability of decoding.Next, the previous Brian’s reading behaviors as well as emergentwere assessed through an opportunity that was revealed by theDictated Story Assessment Strategy. Lastly, the creative as well ascritical questions utilized in the GradedReading Passages Test examine Brian’s reading competency as well asdiscerning his potential to function and act like a man of fullpotentials.
Overviewof Dispositional Sentences
Meanwhile,to find the level of grade in which Brian’s reading checklist oughtto start, some sentences were provided for him to read aloud.Firstly, he was given the first level sentences, which he had noproblem reading. However, in level two, Brian was unable to read onesentence and eight sentences from the provided grade level threesentences.
Overviewof Oral Reading
Toevaluate his oral reading proficiency, Brian was presented with somepassages to read. However, in both reading comprehension, and wordrecognition, the test aimed at determining Brian’s instructional,independent as well as frustration level. The tutor started with alevel one passage, which Brian was able to not only read, but alsoretell while answering presented questions. Brian showed similarpotential in level two passages, but it was difficult for him tocomprehend a level three passage. However, learning the hardshipBrian had to encounter while trying to read a level three passage,the tutor decided to take the advantage of the situation to test hislistening comprehension against his reading comprehension.
Table1: Practice Test in IRI
Levelof Reading Comprehension Recognitionof wordConcentrate
Firststage self-governing Informative No record
SecondstageInformativeSelf-governing No record
Thirdstage Difficult Difficult Informative
Accordingto the results, Brian has competent reading comprehension skills,although his potential to understand words is low. However, withtime, it will be easy for Brian to perceive as well as elaboratewritten content considering the fact that his listening comprehensionstarted to be hard at level three. Brian has a foundation that can benurtured and encouraged to provide the best of him.
Inaddition, while reading, the instructor could perceive Brian’sprogress through different types of miscues. However, neither didBrian reverse words nor substitutes the words with non-words whilereading. Evidently, he made lots of self-correction, which indicatesthat he knew his problem as a reader. For instance, he knew he hadthe challenge of proper pronunciation while reading hence hecorrected the mistakes faster.
Nevertheless,while reading aloud, Brian engaged in finger pointing. In some cases,he would read each word at a time through a tedious tone. Hiscomprehension of the passages was, however, not affected by his modeof reading. Precisely, through retelling of the passage, it was clearthat Brian paid less attention to some content, especially ones thatdid not catch his full attention. He would sometimes forget events,challenge resolution and even the setting. In most cases, it wasevident that Brian’s ability to retell a story was based on howwell he knew the topic. For instance, he yielded a lot of detailsfrom his knowledge regarding some of the passages. He would alsoassociate a passage with something he had encountered in the past,hence being able to approach it.
TheSummary of Comprehension
Further,Brian was able to make a summary of all the passages that he read. Healso answered all the questions addressed regarding the reading. Whenthe questions asked were coded, Brian did not record any number ofmiscues in creative/critical level questions. However, he recordedhalf miscues in interpretive-levelquestions and two-fifth miscues in literal-level question. Accordingto the findings, Brian seemed to know the answers for the literallevel questions, but he could not remember all the details.
ELPASO Phonics Survey
Theabove test was utilized to examine symbol and sound correctionthrough a ninety test words, which are incorporated in a survey. Itis developed in three sections including opening consonant clusters,specialletter combinations and vowel troupe as well as beginning consonantsounds. Typically, the instrument has proved to have the potential tomeasure the knowledge of students while considering syllableprinciples, letters and sounds, vowel rules and basicsight words. Apparently, Brian had familiarized with the entire setof opening consonant sounds although revealed hardship while dealingwith first two consonant clusters. Nevertheless, he showed extremedifficulties while dealing with special letter combinations. It isevident that Brian has a major challenge of combining letters andvowels.
SlossonOral Reading Test (SORT)
Brian’sability to pronounce words while considering the varying levels ofdifficulty was assessed through SORT. Precisely, the words used inthe test originate from normalized readers’ institute. The perusaldegree retrieved from the measurement reflects intermediate schoolperformance. The arrangement of words is also unique since it takesthe form of easiest to the hardest. Essentially, the instrumenttargets to evaluate Brian’s oral performance. He was presented withthe test to identify the number of essential basic words, he wouldrecognize. However, out of 180 words in the entire test, Brian got 49words correct, which were in list one to seven. In such case, thescores on the reading level revealed a record of 2.4, which was aprogress, especially because of the limited duration of engagement.
TheStrategy of Repeated Reading
Asapproved by various scholars from around the world, repeated readinghas proved to be efficient while reinforcing reading fluency,comprehension as well as accuracy. The strategy was thus induced totest whether Brian had the ability to read fluently. He was thusprovided with a book, which the tutor needed him to read aloud. Heread the book continuously for two minutes, while the instructorrecorded the number of words and mistakes that he made. The tutorthus enlightened Brian on the mistakes before he read the book again.However, it was clear that Brian was able to correct all the previouserrors in the second reading, which also shows Brian’s competentpotential for reading fluently.
Theidentified reading problems
Meanwhile,considering the various assessments that were employed towardsfinding the problems that undermine Brian’s reading potential, manyresults were generated. Firstly, Brian is a courageous and motivatingkid. For instance, judging from both SDR and IRI tests, he was notdemoralized by the outcomes, but rather they encouraged and motivatedhis progress. Similarly, while engaging in repeated reading, Brianviewed his mistakes a challenge that he needed to disapprove. He thusembraced the act of correction and the fact that he made progress inthe second attempt compared to the previous one. Further, Brian had agreat connection with scientific books. All through the assessment,he chose the materials. The materials also acted as his motivation.Brian would approach experiments of the similar field with focus andenthusiasm. Apparently, it is significant to evaluate the readingstrengths as well as the weaknesses that were identified throughoutthe assessments.
Firstly,Brian is progressive. He has a high potential of becoming a competentreader. For instance, while reading passages, Brian practicedself-correction of sentences and words. He was aware of his mistakeshence he made an effort of correcting them. Further, whenever Briandid not understand a word in a sentence, he would revisit it aftercompleting the entire sentence. He would strive to create a sense ofall difficult words as well as phrases and also ensure that he doesnot repeat similar mistakes in the future. The approaches, however,shows that Brian recognizes the traits of a good reader, hence histransition is easy.
Secondly,it is easy for Brian to apprehend and even retell a story afterreading. For instance, revisiting the IRI performance, his readingcomprehension is low compared to listening comprehension, but untilthe third-grade level. In the previous classes, Brian showed a highperformance on both. Therefore, it is evident that through enhancinghis decoding skills, Brian could reach the next level of his readingstrength.
Next,through the use of both syntax and context, Brian is capable ofrevealing most of the unfamiliar words in multiple scenarios. It isclear that his utilization of context clues, especially whilegrasping words that are unrecognized, he would make competentprogress with more support. Brian also ventures in the incorporationof syntax while reading to unmask the unrecognized words. Suchabilities are not only essential to his transition, but they alsoreveal the person he will be with more exercise and support.
Lastly,Brian has a particular learning niche that acts as his motivationwhenever he wants to achieve something. His love for science helpshim obtained knowledge in different other fields. Brian feels that hecan embrace other learning areas the same way he does science.Therefore, his tutor utilizes science subjects to help him improvereading comprehension. Throughout the assessment, Brian steppedforward whenever he was introduced to a science-related topic.
Recognizingthe weaknesses that Brian has on reading is the best move towardsimplementing effective measures to address the problem. The firstweakness is negligible sight vocabulary. Precisely, through both SORand IRI Tests, his sight word’s level is limited compared to hiscurrent grade. In such case, Brian requires more training in thesector. Multiple instructions need to be designed for the purpose ofhis improvement.
Secondly,phonetics is a major problem for Brian. It is challenging for him tocombine sounds. He has a high competency while reading sight words ofa single syllable, but reading words that have more than three partsis troublesome for him. Nevertheless, with repeated reading, Briancan make lots of progress. He thus requires being regularly subjectedto the practice to ensure that he familiarizes with multiple partssentences. Brian has a formidable task of not only mastering but alsolearning how to combine vowel groups with the beginning consonantclusters.
Next,Brian is unable to read continuously without finger-pointing. He,however, needs to be helped on the issue irrespective of it helpinghim focus on following the words. At some point, Brian finds himselfskipping words that he covers with his hands. It is troublesome forhim to make sense of some sentences while some words are included.The same mistake can be affecting his ability to decode words in asentence, thus needs to be solved.
Lastly,Brian cannot write multiple words. Reading and writing are identical.For a person to have efficiency in reading, he/she must be able toadvance his/her writing skills. The approach helps one to keep notesor even test the knowledge of a particular material. During theassessment, it is evident that Brian felt lazy to write even contentthat originated from his field of interest. However, writing will notonly help him learn how to read, but it will also make it easy forhim in times of expression. The approach will also favor his tutor ashe/she would know how to test his overall progress.
Meanwhile,the solution plan towards addressing Brian’s reading problem wasdirected to areas that challenged him most. The first objective wasto heighten his sight vocabulary of words, especially ones that carrytwo or more syllables. The next one was met to reinforce hispotential to decode vowel diphthongs. Next objective targeted toimprove his rate of reading and fluency. Lastly, the plan involveshelping him transform in both writing and reading.
TheStrategy of Compound Match
Theprimary motive of the scheme was to give Brian a chance to recognizeplurals, source words, possessives as well as inflectional words andcontractions, which main motive was to increase his sight vocabulary.In such Brian was subjected to a situation that helped him learn howto pronounce compound words. Besides, it was competent strategyconsidering it helped him familiarize with long words. Firstly, Brianwas presented with a passage that he was to read. Secondly, he wasgiven several prepared pieces of words to construct a compound word.However, he was supposed to read the formed word aloud. In the caseof hardship, the tutor motivated him to try and retrieve the name inthe short passage.
Weengaged in the practice three times. In the first round, Brian foundit difficult to form a compound word when provided with variouspieces, but in the process, he was able to employ curved design tocreate a term. In the next and the last round, it was easy for him tonot only create compound words but also pronounce them aloud.Evidently, Brian was able to retrieve different small words within acompound word, which was satisfactory progress.
TheStrategy of Memory/Concentration
ReinforcingBrian’s ability to decode vowel diphthongs was the primary goal ofemploying the plan. Either in isolation or context, the approach gaveBrian a chance to familiarize with words of vowel diphthong or evensearch for them. The plan also meant to help him improve regardingmemorization. However, Brian was subjected with both a passage andcustomized word cards. It was thus his duty to read the entirepassage and master each vowel diphthong word. Besides, the set oftarget words were inverted to ensure that Brian applied some effortto find them.
Brianliked the plan as it was fun for him. Precisely, he pronounced allthe vowel diphthong word in the set. Although it was difficult forhim to recognize two of the phrase, Brian efficiently approached themwhen they were presented in the passage. At first, it was evidentthat he did not pay much attention regarding the words, but whenintroduced to a similar scenario in the following week, he maderemarkable progress.
Thestrategy of repeated reading
Thetutor recognized that Brian’s rate of reading, as well as fluency,was small compared to his previous grade level. In such case, he waspresented with a short passage from a topic that interested him.However, apart from reading faster, the plan targeted to eliminatethe number of errors he made while reading. Brian read the passagethrice while the tutor records the mistakes he made on each attempt.
Comparingthe results of the first attempt, second and the last, Brian madeprogress on each. He was confident that the practice was a major plantowards transforming his reading hence all his attention was on it.Brian recognized all the errors he made from the first reading andcorrected them in the second reading. On the last attempt, hecorrected all the mistakes.
Writingan Informative Material Plan
Thelast strategy was met to help Brian connect his reading skills withwriting. The tutor recognized that having knowledge on both is thebest approach towards succeeding in learning. Brian was able torealize what he can read he needed to have the full potential ofwriting it. Also, he realized that what he can write, he must be in aposition to read it. Having the ability to fulfill one side limitedhis learning potential. Nevertheless, the tutor applied multiplesteps to ensure the success of the strategy. Firstly, throughbrainstorming, the instructor needed Brian to revisit his previousreading materials and design a unique possible format as well as thetitle. In such case, it met that he needed to understand the contentfirst as well as the themes. Next, through revising and researching,the tutor required Brian to find compelling content that could easilyfit in his experimental sheets. The next step involved sharing hisdesigned content so as to get a response. It helped him understandthe possible mistakes that he made, hence rectifying them to increasethe strength of the entire content. Next, Brian was able toincorporate different pictures, graphs and even charts to his book.Lastly, the tutor helped Brian to edit the content before publishingit.
Evidently,Brian was able to compile and provide unique content in his book. Hewas able to organize chapters, revise the details and rectify thepossible errors. He was able to identify his audience as well astheir potential needs. Precisely, through the short book, Brian wasable to connect both his writing and reading skills efficiently.
Successof the Plan
Overtime, Brian progressed in different areas, especially oralcomprehension and recognition of words. Within a month, Brian had theability to approach and apprehend five-grade level words andunderstanding. Precisely, Brian has the potential to advance more,especially considering the progress that he recorded over the shortperiod. Before the intervention, Brian reported challenges in almostall reading-related areas. For instance, he was inefficient withwords, combining sounds, weak vocabulary sight and even a problemwith consonant digraphs. Apparently, Brian is a fast learner.Although he has a record of low potential in some areas, he hasrevealed a sigh of progress that could not be registered by anunfocused person.
However,Brian needs to continue practicing his reading as well as writing.For instance, he can be competing with his sister as well as otherlearners to measure his progress. In such case, he will be able tomake the best of the practice as he transits to a competent reader.
Theissue of struggling reading among children has been recorded in mostcases from around the world. It has been clear that most of thechildren are finding it difficult to comprehend specific readingmaterials, especially kids from Non-Native English Speaking nations,Jamaludin et al. (2016). Apparently, the environment they arepresented at, and the experiences in English tend to control theextent in which such learners love reading, Jamaludin et al. (2016).According to Zhao et al. 2016, teachers from English speakingcountries find it easy to teach children from Non-English-speakingnations vocabulary, but difficult to help the apprehend reading. Atsome point, the instructors have associated the struggle withdyslexia, Zhao et al. (2016). They feel that since the overallintelligence of the children is not affected, dyslexia could apossible answer to the entire problem.
Nevertheless,it has been evident that although many children experience difficultyin reading, most of them transit at a higher rate when subjected toeffective practices, Schargel, & Smink, (2014). Various kids fromaround the world have transited from poor reading through differentinterventions. All it requires is patience with the children since itis a huge shot. Sousa (2014) makes it clear that a tutor mustfamiliarize with child’s problem, learn about the bestinterventions and help the child to fit his/her mind to the primaryobjectives. Reading problem is continuing become a burden to thekids, teachers and the parents, Shaywitz, S. & Shaywitz, B.(2016). Therefore, professionals and other relevant parties mustcontinue to find ways in which challenged children can be helped toovercome the burden.
Jamaludin,K. A., Alias, N., Mohd Khir, R. J., DeWitt, D., & Kenayathula, H.B. (2016). The effectiveness of synthetic phonics in the developmentof early reading skills among struggling young ESL readers. SchoolEffectiveness and School Improvement, 27(3),455-470.
Schargel,F. P., & Smink, J. (2014). Strategiesto help solve our school dropout problem. Routledge.
Shaywitz,S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2016). Readingdisability and the brain. On Developing Readers: Readings fromEducational Leadership (EL Essentials),146.
Sousa,D. A. (2014). Howthe brain learns to read.Corwin Press.
Zhao,J., Joshi, R. M., Dixon, L. Q., & Huang, L. (2016). Chinese EFLteachers’ knowledge of basic language constructs and theirself-perceived teaching abilities. Annalsof dyslexia, 66(1),127-146.
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