Causes of Diabetes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Causesof Diabetes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Diabetesmellitus isa commonly-occurring disease, in particular for the aged.Diabetesis a group of metabolic diseases characterized by a person havinghigh glucose (or sugar) amount in the blood. The cause can arise as aresult of either an inadequate insulin production, or a consequenceof the failure of the body`s cells to respond appropriately toinsulin, or even as in some cases, out of both reasons. Polyuria,characterized by regular passing of urine, is experienced amongpatients with high blood sugar. Also, the patients becomeincreasingly hungry (polyphagia) and thirsty (polydipsia).Dysfunction, failure of several organs and long term damage, chiefamong them being the kidneys, heart, nerves, eyes, and blood vesselsare symptoms of a chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes. The disease is acomplex, chronic illness and hence demands a regular medicalattention requiring the incorporation of several risk reductionstratagems that are more advanced than just the control of glycemia.Due to its high prevalence, sensitization of the disease has beencarried out over the past few decades. This paper explores the causesof diabetes, its symptoms, and finally the treatment optionsavailable.
Diabetesresults from an insufficientproduction of the hormone insulin. The secretion of the hormone isconducted by the β (beta) islet cells in the pancreas, the hormone`sprinciple purpose is to convert glucose from carbohydrates which arepresent in the food to allow metabolism. Additionally, insulin isinvolved in the conversion of glucose to glycogen a process referredto as glycogenesis and thus decreasing the level of glucose in theblood.
Uponthe digestion of food, glucose, once it enters the circulatorysystem, is broken down to produce ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) whichacts as an energy source for normal functioning of body organs. Whenglucose enters the bloodstream, its level rises thereby causing thepancreas to release insulin which either converts the glucose toglycogen for storage or utilizes the glucose for metabolism purposesthereby reducing the blood glucose level to optimum. However, inpeople infected by diabetes, they have an inability to produceinsulin or the body cells (example, the liver cells) fail to respondto insulin normally. Consequently, the low production of insulinresults in a spike in glucose levels in the blood hence leading tohyperglycemia (high blood sugar).
Accordingto The New York Times (2017), three general etiopathogeneticcategories of diabetes are Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, andfinally gestational diabetes. However, the causes and risk factorsdiffer for each type. The first one is Type 1 diabetes occurs fromindividuals who represent a 5-10% population of those who haveDiabetes. This kind of diabetes consequences from a cell-mediatedautoimmune damage of the pancreas β-cells. The destruction markersof the immune of beta cells comprise of autoantibodies to insulin,autoantibodies to the tyrosine phosphates IA-2β and IA-2, and theautoantibodies to GAD (GAD65). The beta cells, therefore, producelittle or no insulin. The disease is common among young adolescentsand children who may show ketoacidosis symptoms as the first symptomof the disease. Others may acquire low fasting hypoglycemia that hasthe potential of rapidly changing to severe ketoacidosis andhyperglycemic. Individuals who have Type 1 Diabetes thus becomeinsulin dependent and are predisposed to ketoacidosis (AmericanDiabetes Association, 2014).
Thesecond category is the Type 2 diabetes which is responsible for90-95% of all diabetic (avoid so many repetitions in one sentence)cases. This kind of diabetes incorporates individuals with a relativedeficiency of insulin or those who have insulin deficiency. It oftenoccurs in adulthood, but also obese people have been diagnosed withthe disease as obesity causes some extent of insulin resistance(American Diabetes Association, 2014). Type 2 Diabetes often goesundiagnosed for several years since hyperglycemia, in this case,develops and is not acute in its prior stages for the patient toobserve any symptoms of diabetes. Insulin secretion in this type ofdiabetes is defective and is inadequate to compensate for insulinresistance. The risk to develop this kind of diabetes is higher inindividuals who lack physical activity, are obese, and increases asthe individuals’ age progress. A strong genetic disposition is theetiology of this type of diabetes. However, the heredities of thesecond type of diabetes are intricate and thus not entirely defined.
Gestationaldiabetes is the third most widespread type of diabetes. It occursduring pregnancy and has been shown to affect 18% of pregnancies.Gestational diabetes usually disappears after the pregnancy periodthough chances of it happening in future pregnancies are high. Thereis usually a link between both Type 2 and gestational diabetes, andquite some women who have developed gestational diabetes are laterdiagnosed with Type 2 diabetes as both involve the resistance toinsulin.
Highblood sugar level has more than a few symptoms, chief among thembeing blurry vision, fatigue, hunger, excess thirst, weight loss, andfrequent urination. The Type 1 diabetes symptoms manifest over timewhereas those associated with Type 2 diabetes develop slowly over aperiod and in some cases, is asymptomatic in those affected.
Diabetesdevelops over time to cause serious problems referred to as diabetescomplications. Such complications include abscesses and contagions ofthe foot or leg, which can result in amputation if left untreated,Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS) manifested by arise in blood glucose levels and a lack of ketones in the blood orurine. Also, if diabetes is uncontrolled it increases the risk ofapprehension, depression, and other psychological maladies in theindividual, kidney failure caused by kidney problems causingnephropathy, and wounds and abrasions take a longer duration tonurse. Not forgetting general eye problems which include difficultyseeing at night, sensitivity to light, and eventual blindness,frequent infections which result from a weak immune system and casesarising from a heart attack and stroke increases. Lastly, tingling,pain, general loss of feeling, erectile dysfunction, and problemsassociated with food digestion may occur due to damages of the bodynerves.
Anoverturn from Type 2 diabetes can result from a change in lifestyle,by mostly, eating healthier foods and losing weight. There is animprovement, in some cases, of Type 2 diabetes through weight losssurgeries and non-insulin methods. The choice of treatment associatedwith this kind of diabetes takes into account the patient`sunderlying health status, medical compliance issues, theeffectiveness and side effects of the medications to be offered, andlastly the cost of the health care system or the patient, thus makingthe treatment personalized. The therapeutic approach to Type 2diabetes treatment is aimed at increasing glucose excretion lowersthe intake of carbohydrates from the digestive tract, increase organsensitivity to insulin, or they may work through other mechanisms(Kahn, Copper, & Del Prato, 2014).
Type1 diabetes does not have a cure. As a result, the goal of thetreatments offered is to maintain blood glucose level close tooptimum so as to avoid problems associated with this type ofdiabetes. Treatment provided for patients who have this kind ofdiabetes incorporate the eating of a healthy diet, avoiding smokingand alcoholic drinks. Taking insulin injections every day or relyingon an insulin pump, regular exercises to enable the utilization ofinsulin more efficient in the body, and routine medical checkups helpwatch for signs of complications such as those arising from kidneys,eyes, blood vessels, and nerve diseases is to be taken intoconsideration. An incoming therapeutic procedure for Type 1 diabetes,which is not yet available, is known as the artificial pancreas. Itinvolves a device that allows a continuous monitor of blood sugar toa pump of insulin. The device provides when the need arises, thecorrect amount of insulin. There are some different forms of theclosed-loop insulin delivery, which have had encouraging results fromthe clinical trials. Therefore, research is still essential prior thelaunch of a fully functional artificial pancreas.
Diabeteshas been proven a slow killer with no known curable treatments.Though, the implications arising from its complications cansignificantly reduce via apt awareness and timely treatment. With theprevalence estimated to increase due to lifestyle choices, it isadvisable to practice a healthy lifestyle coupled with weightreduction and exercises. Furthermore, patient self-managementeducation and their support are encouraged and are critical inpreventing acute complications and lowering the peril of long-termproblems.
AmericanDiabetes Association. (2014). Diagnosis and classification ofdiabetes mellitus. Diabetes care, 37(Supplement 1), S81-S90.
Kahn,S. E., Cooper, M. E., & Del Prato, S. (2014). Pathophysiology andtreatment of type 2 diabetes: perspectives on the past, present, andfuture. The Lancet, 383(9922), 1068-1083.
TheNew York Times, (2017). Health Guide.Retrievedfromhttp://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/diabetes/overview.html
No related posts.