Chen Ku Wei
TheThings They Carried byTim O’Brien
Thetypical life of soldiers in the battlefield is composed of severalthings. Tim O’Brien gives a fascinating but disturbing descriptionof what soldiers experience while participating in wars. Even ifsoldiers are not on the battlefield, they remember certain thingsfor example, the emotional and psychological consequences of the war.Different equipment which soldiers carry depends on the rank,mission, and place. Some tools or equipment are necessary for thesurvival of a soldier. Other commodities reflect the deeper feelings,emotional and psychological, that soldiers experience in thebattlefield (Ferguson100).For instance, some soldiers take photographs of their girlfriendsbecause of strong romantic feelings(Donovan 99).Havingserved as a foot soldier in various places, O’Brien witnessedhorrifying scenes. Just like other soldiers, O’Brien rememberspositiveand negative experiences of military activities. Sad memories havefar-reaching effects on the lives of veteran soldiers. When a soldierrecalls how a colleague waskilledon the battlefield, he is likely to have a mental illness. Soldierswho fall in love but cannot get time to spend with their loversbecause of war develop emotional disorders. Thepurpose of the paper is to determine theeffects of various tools which soldiers carry when they participatein wars. Tim O’Brien’s book, TheThings They Carried providesvaluable insight into the emotional and psychological costs of thewar. Thisis due to adverse effects ofwar enhances the probability of soldiers coming out of thebattlefield with PTSD.
Agood number of the soldiers carry photos of the persons they love tothe war. Photos are among the special tools that are not offered bythe Pentagon. Most of these photos consist of pictures of theirfamily or girlfriends. It isarguedthat the photos give soldiers hope of returning home and encouragethem to put their best in the war. In his book, O’Brien describesJimmy Cross as a young man resistant to change because of love for awoman. In addition to carrying Martha’s letters, O’Brien notesthat Cross wondered whether the woman she loved was a virgin. Apartfrom “imagining romantic camping trips into the White Mountains ofNew Hampshire,” Cross wanted Martha “to love him as he loved her”(Mantho 1). In addition to this, Cross kept two photographs of thelady she loved, Martha. Often, Cross remembered kissing Marthagoodnight and wished he had sexual intimacy with her before livingfor the mission whenever he looked at her photos. The way O’Briendescribes Jimmy Cross, it is apparent that love was affecting Cross,a kid in a warthat was madly in love. To some extent, one can argue that Jimmy usedMartha or the thought of Martha as an escape from the boredom as wellas the senselessterror of war. Equally, one can think that Jimmy thought Martha asone of the distractions that could result in his death or death ofhis colleagues. According to O’Brien, Jimmy experienceddifficulties keeping all his concentration on the mission, war. Heoccasionally shouted at his men to branch out the column as well asto be alert and watchful, but at the same time slipped into hisdaydreams pretending to walk with Martha alongwiththe shores of Jersey (Mantho 1). Priortothe murder of Ted Lavender, Lt. Cross waited nervously as one of thesoldiers descended into a tunnel that was believed to hostguerrillas. The tunnel, as Mantho notes, was sexually evocativewithout willing,it made Cross imaginehim and Martha “buried alive under the weight of dense, crushinglove” (Mantho 1).
Theaffection for Martha made Cross not only to get lost in an eroticdaydreambut also to desire to understand the intimate secrets of Martha. Inother words, to know Martha became his urgent issue while at war.Mantho asserts thatJimmy’sdesire for a woman paints the psychologicalchallenge soldiers experience while at war far from the people theylove. Although Cross spent much of his time investigating hisfeelings about Martha, O’Brien notes that he withdrew all theseefforts following the killing of Ted Lavender (Mantho 2). Apart fromfeeling shame, Cross developed hatred towards himself for lovingMartha more than the men he led, leadingto the death ofLavender. O’Brien further states that Cross wept for a long time,grieving for Lavender as well as for Martha that existed in adifferent world. Instead of linking the death of Lavender to theunaccepted fortunes of war and lack of preparedness, Lt. Crossconcluded that placing a woman above his colleagues was the maincause of his misfortunes (Mantho 2). According to Mantho, thetraditional principles of masculinity consider it a taboo for a manbeing dependent upon any woman including his wife. The tabooapplies regardless of the physical circumstances of amanincluding the case of war. Thus, placing a woman above the safety ofother men of war is considered an indication of weakness, betrayal aswell as stupidity.
BecauseCross controlled neither his thoughts nor his desire on Martha, onecan argue that Cross thought himself as a goodexampleof an inferior man. From the description provided by O’Brien, Jimmysuffered from two specific emotions aftermath the death of Lavenderself-hatred since he was unable to protect his menand shame. Shame experienced by Jimmy is not related to social issuesor social context, but a better way of accepting and disagreeing witha behavior considered inappropriate. Such emotional feelings are verydetrimental to soldiers. In fact, they can make soldiers to considerthemselves useless beings in the society as well as haunt them forthe rest of their lives. For instance, Cross’ reactions areexclusively self-generated since none of his colleagues has blamedhim for the death of Lavender or tried to disgrace him. Soldiers whounderstand societal expectations, such as Cross, will experiencemental disorders whenever they recall such experiences in the war.
Whensoldiers go to war, they carry heavy gear including not only bodyarmor and weapons, but also batteries. These tools of war forsoldiers today are veryheavythey way about 60 to 100 pounds. Similarly, O’Brien notes thatsoldiers carried a variety of toolsto war. In addition to steel helmets weighing 5 pounds,the soldiers carriedfatigue jackets together with trousers. On the feet, the soldiersalso wore jungle boots that weighed about 2.1 pounds.For instance, O’Brien notes that “Henry Dobbins carried the M-60,which weighed 23 pounds unloaded, but which was almost always loadedin addition to about 15 pounds of ammunition draped in belts”(O’Brien 5). Such tools inflicted a lot of pain on the soldiers,causing them to live with shoulder and neck pains for many days.These toolsalso affect the way soldiers respond to attacks associated with war.For instance, it is possible that most of the soldiers who lose theirlives as well as those who get injured in the war experiencedifficulties in running due to the weight they are carrying. Also,many soldiers suffer from traumatic brain injuries as a result ofsome of the tools they carry.According to Spelman,Hunt, Seal, and Burgo-Black(1202), the most usual cause of injury among soldiers includes blastwaves from explosives they carry to war. The noise of the explosivesand machines used in war affect the reasoning of soldiers.Similarly, (Rivera5) argues that exposurecombat as one of the maincause of PTSD in soldiers. The assertion is tandem with the fact thatsoldiers in war witness atrocities that create fear and tension. Useof weapons at war also exposes soldiers to diversetraumatic events. For instance, it is evident that some soldiersaccidentally kill their colleagues with the weapons they carry towar. Apart from shooting each other in tense situations, some blowout their colleaguesaccidentally, thinking they are enemies. High crash noise from wartools, vehicles besides aircrafts also cause acoustic injury. Fear inaddition to horror associated with the use of the weapons in warmakessoldiers developpost-traumatic stress disorder. In fact, a good percentage ofsoldierswith PTSD exhibit symptoms such as nightmares, flashbacks in additionto psychological sorrow. Soldiers who fail to protect theircolleagues despite having tools of war also blame themselves for themisfortunes. A good number of soldiershave been reported to develop stress due to the role they play inwar. Drivers and pilots of warequipment,for instance,develop PTSD because of their role in the war. A pilot in the UnitedStates Navy, let’s call him Sooky, experienced PTSD which made himdevelopsuicidal ideations. He was the pilot of the rescue plane and had justbeen requested to save some soldiers who were in extreme danger.Sooky decided to help the soldiers by flying to where they were. Dueto the tense situation onthe ground, Sooky feared to land the plane and decided to fly awayclaiming that landing the plane could expose him to impendingdanger. All his colleagues who were in dire need of his assistance atthe time perished in the hands of the enemies. Although Sooky was notaffected physically, he hadPTSDbecause of what happened because of his fear. He had failed toprotect his colleagues from the enemies despite having the necessaryequipment for the saving job. Since Sooky returned home from the war,he was unable to sleep and eat as well as unable to stop thinkingabout what took place inthe war. In addition to feeling embarrassed, Sooky was ashamed anddid not know how he would cope with such event (Rivera 1). Thus,soldiers like Sooky consider themselves failures since they could notuse weapons within their proximity to protect their colleagues. Somesoldiers who kill their colleaguesaccidentallydetach themselves from others.
Themainrole of the weapons carried by soldiers to war is to kill the enemy.However, the soldiers are born with the idea of pulling a trigger intheir mind. Killing other people is not part of soldiers,but part of their profession. When soldiers killin war, they undergo a lot of suffering. Although the greatest fearof soldiers while at war is dying, the acting taking other person’slife is extremely distressing. In Hugo’s view, the distressassociated with taking other person’s life is the main reason whysome soldiers place themselves in jeopardy to shun killing otherpeople (Hugo 2012). According to him, soldiers are fond of scaringaway their enemies to avoid death. He further notes that over 80percent of soldiersin the two World Wars fired weapons above the enemies’ headsinstead of shooting them directly to avoid killing fellow humanbeings. Thus, soldiers who kill their enemies in war live distressinglives since they remember the incidents at war. As it was notedbefore, the main contributing factors for the deaths at war are theweapons that soldiers carry to war. Thus, deaths caused by soldiersare one of the factors that make the majorityof the veterans stay unemployed.
Whenthe international community pressure governments to report crimesrelated to sexual violence and rape, these methods areoften claimednot be employed strategically by soldiers. However, history showsthat rape has been used extensively as a weapon of war as well as atool of destruction. Rapeisdescribedas one type of sexual violence against women in the society. Thecommondefinition of rape islinkedto a forced sexual activity. This definition varies significantlywhen one thinks of rape as a weapon of war. In one of the documentsreferred to as “UN Action Against Sexual Violence,” it is arguedthat“Rape committed during the war is often intended to terrorize thepopulation, break up families, destroy communities, and, in someinstances, change the ethnic makeup of the next generation.Sometimes, it is also used to deliberately infect women with HIV orrender women from the targeted community incapable of bearingchildren”(The United Nations 2013). For many years, rape has been used bysoldiers as a tool of war- probably the most dangerous tool of war-to demonstrate power in addition to undermining the social frameworkof a given society. It is one type of torture that inflicts bothphysical and psychological pain. Rape is one reason behind the rapidspread of HIV and AIDS in warzones. When soldiers rape, they inflictpain on the victims as well as contract sexually transmitteddiseases. These effects of shame areoften associatedwith shame and feeling of guilt in perpetrators. Theircolleagues mostly avoid soldiers who rape enemies at warbecause of fear. Equally, the raping act makes soldiers beashamed of themselves since some victims of rapeinclude old women and men as well as little children. In Rwanda,approximately 250,000 women wererapedwithin three months of genocide that took place in 1994. Similarly,over 60,000 women wererapedin Sierra Leone as a result of the civilwar that occurred between 1991 and 2002(Peltola 3). The cases of rapeare rampant in warzones,and they are practiced mainly by soldiers. As it was noted before,some world organizations such as the United Nations always condemnsoldiers who rape other people in warzones. Such condemnation taintsthe public image of soldiersinvolved in the act. The feeling of shame and guilt not only distresssoldiersbut also make them develop some mental disorders.
Studiesshow that victims of rape are often antisocial. For instance, a goodnumber of the Vietnam veterans have beenidentifiedas soldiers who hadmilitary-induced PTSDin addition to antisocial behavior (Sankaram 10). An interview thatwascarriedin 1983 showed that majority of the Vietnam soldiers’ antisocialbehavior was as a result of a feeling of guilt over the violent actslike rape they had committed while at war. One factor thatcontributes to increased cases of sexual assault and antisocialbehavior of the soldiers is what istermedas ‘military masculinity.’ The military is made up of a differentculture from that of an ordinary society that isdistinguishedby power structure and disciplinary action. Immersion inthis culture often leads to the crop of ‘military masculinity.’Within this culture, principles of competition and aggression as wellas power and controlled are highly practiced to prove one’s valueand identity (Sankaram 13). The need for one to beidentifiedas a military soldier exposes femalesoldiers to the riskof rape while at war. While undergoing training, soldiers are askedto view their bodies as weapons of war. Women,for instance, are discussed as targets for men’s sexual drives. Infact, male soldiers are fond of naming their weapons with femalenames, supporting the assertion that women bodies are weapons of war.Basedon this claim,it is apparent that women soldiers are sometimes used by theirleaders to trick enemies. As a result, they expose them to many risksincluding rape for the sake of their men at war. Such experienceshave detrimental effects on women. According to one female soldierreferred to as Jacinda, an experience of rape made her developproblems with maintaining relationships. Apart from not trusting men,she often portrays OCD behaviors. Some of the factors that influenceher behaviorsinclude self-denial caused by the heinous act of rape by hercolleagues while at war. Considering Jacinda’ lifestyle, one canaffirm that the antisocial behavior of many female veterans is as aresult of the rape they incurred from other soldiers while at war.
O’Briannoted that some soldiers carried condoms as one of their necessities(O’Brian6).Soldiers go to war without their couples, meaning they will have tobetray their loved ones while at war. Playing sex at war was alsoassociated with distress. Due to oddnumber of men and women onthe battle field, some soldiers endangered themselves by accessingsex from the locals. The unfortunate thing with such sexual habit isthe contraction of diseases or getting killed by the enemies. It wasnotedabove that soldiers contract sexually transmitted diseasessuch as HIV and AIDS because of using rape as one of the weapons ofwar. Equally, it is evident that some sexual practices by thesoldiers are exposed to their families, affecting theirrelationships. The feeling of guilt makes soldiers not to functionnormally in their families. The diseases contracted as a result ofrape also make soldiers liveregretful lives, blaming themselves for their ordeals.
Thethings soldiers carries is influenced by some extentby the condition on the ground. Currently, many people avoid militaryprofession because of the dangers associated with it. In fact, thenumber of oldsoldiers has declined significantly in the past few years. As aresult of this, children arecarriedto war as weapons. Child soldiering is becoming acommontool in the modern warfare. According to statistics, 40 percent ofthe armed forces onthis planet constitute young soldiers. Motivations for recruitment ofchildren into military include limited ability of children to assesspossible risks, shortsightedness in addition to feelings ofinvulnerability. The majority of the soldiers who arekilledat war constitute children. Children are less costly than adultsoldiers because they use few resources including few and smallweapons. From a different perspective, lifestyle including poverty,starvation and high rate of unemployment influence the decision ofchildren to join military. Child soldiers are mostly brought up in anenvironment characterized bysevere violence, influencing their decision to practice the oldpractices in their lives. The repeated exposure to chronic as well astraumatic stress during the period of development leaves manychildren with mental in addition to physical ill-health referred toas PTSD. Such exposures are claimed to deprive childrenofnormal and healthy development as well as affects their integrationwith other members of the society.
Thousandsof children arekidnappedas well as pressured to join army groups in the world. The increasednumber of lightweight weapons has also encouraged the entry ofchildren aged 10years to work as soldiers (Schauer and Thomas 315). Compared to earlyweapons that required muscular persons to handle them, technology hasled to the introduction of lighter tools that allow recruitment ofchildren as soldiers. It is estimated that about 300,000 childsoldiers, both girls,and boys, who are below the age of 18, participate fully in over 30conflicts in the entire world (Schauer and Thomas 315). 40 percent ofthese childrenthat is about 120,000, constitute girls whose plight is unrecognizedbecause of the little attention paid tothe girl soldiers. In 2004, a study was carried out by politicalscientists on 42 wars worldwide. Almost all these wars took place indeveloping countries (Schauer and Thomas 313). Observers of the ‘newwars’ noted that the civilian population was the maintarget and massacres, bombings in addition to the systematicatrocities areusedas strategies in the currentwarfare. The surprising finding,however,was the role of child soldiers in the ‘new wars.’ Child soldiersmade up approximately 80 percent of the soldiers in developedcountries. From the finding, it is apparent that children have becomevictims as well as perpetrators of the currentwarfare. Dueto the rise in the percentage of children in thewarfare,over 2 million miners have died over the last decade. Three timesthis numberhave also developed complications as a result of seriousinjuries. According to Schauer and Thomas (313), approximately 10,000children are mutilated or killed by landmines every year because ofthe armed conflict. In addition to severe injuries, traumatic stressis also claimed to arise from painful in addition to frighteningmedical treatments. Living with disabilities, especially in poorcountries,also expose child soldiers to traumatic stress. Studies show thatchild soldiers rarely receive medical assistance in time during childsoldiering. Such experience is likely to affect the reasoning of achild since it associated with a lot of pain and suffering.
Theaccumulation of the traumatic experiences increases the risks ofdeveloping both PTSD and depression. PTSD patients are claimed todevelopfear-network characterized with trauma-related memories. The mosttraumatic live events in the majorityof the children who work as child soldiers include being forced tochop dead bodies, kill someone, torch houses, and mutilate someonewhile at war (Schauer and Thomas 322). Witnessing shooting andinjuring of other persons in addition to participating in shootingpeople affect children significantly. Based on this, a child who hadserved as a child soldier in the DemocraticRepublic of Congo reported many things related to PTSD. According tothe child, he started experiencing terrible nightmares after he cameout of the war. His nightmares were mostly about the people theykilled, and most particularly the skulls they crashed and the voiceof their commander ordering them to do something. As a result ofthis, he often wakes up frightened with his heart beating strong,evidencing something is wrong. Sometimes, the boy is forced to walkout of his home at night to get rid of the unwanted memories (Schauerand Thomas 324).
Childrenof war together with child soldiers are vulnerable and mostly sufferfrom the deleterious long-term effects of experiences as well aswitnessed incidents of violence. Child Warsoldiers are often obliged to cope with cumulative consequences oftraumatic stress besides exposure to combat and otherlife-threatening incidentsand acts of abuse like torture and rape (Schauer and Thomas 314). Theexperienceof tortureof other children,as well as death of colleagues,hampers a child’s healthy development in addition to that child’sability to function properly. The social consequences of childrensoldering include rape. Soldiers are renowned for rapingminors and the disadvantaged in the battlefield. As it was notedabove, women soldiers are often rapedby their male colleagues. Similarly, the use of child soldiers in warexposes children to early sexual activities that expose them todiseases and unwanted pregnancies. Thus, it is evident that use ofchildren as tools of war increases the risk of PTSD in soldiers.
Necessityalso influences the things soldiers carry to war.Among the essentials or necessities according to O’Brian includedcigarettes. In other words, soldiers also carrydrugs as tools of war. A Largenumber of warsisoften associatedwith excessive use of addictive drugs. From increased use of drugssuch as cigarettes by soldiers, it is apparent that drugs and warcoexist. Vietnam wasassociatedwith increaseduse of marijuana and heroin by soldiers (McGrane209).Although the modern wars evaluate the prescriptions for the soldiers,it is apparent that use of drugs has devastating effects on soldiers.One of the key questions that linger in the mind of many people iswhy do soldiers use drugs? The answer to this questionis related to the circumstances associated with soldering. War is notonly a horrifying and traumatizing eventbut also a stressful experience for soldiers. Many soldiers turn todrugs as one of the coping methods for the factors related to war.From this assertion, it is apparent that soldiers who aredeployedmultiple times are more exposed to the risk of getting addicted tocertain drugs. Although substance use is termed a poor copingmechanism for any form of stress, it is evident that cigarettes areissuedor carried by soldiers purposefully. In addition to these drugs,soldiers carryprescription drugs to war. The role of prescription drugs inwar is to treat soldiers who incur injuries in the battle field.These drugsunfortunately are strong narcotic pain medications that influence thedesire of soldiersto continue using them after treatment. Over time, soldiers have beenclaimed to become dependent on the prescription drugs and developingan addiction. Alcohol abuse is also a common practice among the soldiers. Some ofthe things that influence dependence on drugs by the military evenwhen at war include their experiences. As it was noted above,experience toughbesides traumatic experiences at war that leave psychological inaddition to physical scars in them. Thus, substance abuse while atwar ismostly usedas a self-medicate or one way of dealing with problematic symptoms ofinjuries and mental disorders.
O’Briannoted that soldiers carry their bodies to war. According to him,soldiers’ bodies are part of the weapons that are used to fightenemies at war. Carryingflesh as a weapon of war is one of the things that increase stressand anxiety in soldiers. None ofthe soldiers go to war expecting to die. All of the soldiers do havea hopeof returning home to their loved ones after the deadly mission. Itis due to this thatsome soldiers carried good-luck charms to war (O’Brian 111). Themain reason for takingcharms in addition to other ‘good-lack things’ is the fear of thecombat. Soldiers who go to war are sure of getting injured of dying.They are also sure of either killing opponents or some of theircolleagues getting killed in the same war. Apart from the fearof confrontations, soldiers expect diseases to affect their reactionin the war since they areoften exposedto danger and diseases.As a result of all these, soldiers are often bored, frightened, andmiserable. Others appear enraged and lonely. Similarly, others feeldepressed by the fact they have to go against the social norms tokill enemies (MacLean 568). For all these reasons, it is apparentthat soldiers experience worse physical in addition to mental healththan people who have never experienced any combat. A human body isjustfleshthat can bedestroyedby natural factors and manmadeweapons. In tandem with this assertion, O’Brian noted that Cross’men were forced to wear helmets when one of them was shot inthe head (O’Brian11).In other words, loss of life is one thing that soldiers fear verymuch when they go to war.
Effectsof combat differ between the soldiers at war its scaring account isnot randomly distributedacross the soldiers at war. The assertion isjustifiedby the privileges soldiers have when they go to war. As it was notedbefore, soldiers carry different tools when they go to war. Selectionof toolsof war,however,is influenced by the ability of the people at war. Black and soldiersfrom disadvantaged countries,for instance,are negatively affected by the combat when compared with privilegedenemies because of accessibility of resources. Soldiers fromlow-income countries often have fewer resources to address manyproblems related to war. Asaresuuult,the Vietnam soldiers experienced a lot of stress during their combatwith the European soldiers (MacLean 568). When soldiers go to warpoorly positioned than their enemies, they expose their bodies todanger. With crudeweapons, it is apparent that the opponents will destroy them easily.Such fact creates not only fear in the disadvantaged soldiersbut also causes mental disorders.
Thethings soldiers carry to war include jackets, jungle boots, and steelhelmet in addition to largepair of trousers (O’Brian 5). This dressing style affects soldiersgreatlywhen they are war. The conditions of the battle field such astropical heat in addition to extreme humidity make a lifefor the soldiers extremelydifficult.Due to the emotionalweight of fear, soldiers could get rid of the heavy attire even inhot weather. Equally, walking in the mountainous wilderness forextendeddistances with their military attire was stressing. In fact, theweight of their gear, weapons in addition to the attire was more thana half of their weight. Probably it is as a result of this that footsoldiers werenicknamedgrunts. They grunted not only under the weight, but also the fatigue.
Socialmedia isalso usedas a tool of war by soldiers. In fact,the Vietnam War was the first war to be televised. The mediaportrayed not only the conflict and soldiersbut also what was happening in that war. The extensive use of socialmedia today as a tool of war has devastating effects on the soldiers.Theadvancement in technology has also people with a platform toshare information, videos in addition to pictures of war in realtime. The report on the events that take place in war fields givesevery person the opportunity of becoming an information actor,distributing a varietyof information about the warto every corner of the world. The nature of the shared informationand the speed at which the information is shared influences theimpact of events at war. Use of social of media has not increased thespread of propaganda and disinformation, but also manipulated theperceptions of other members of the community about soldiers (Curika,Reynolds, and Svetoka10). Increased use of social media by terroristgroups in spreading information about the torture they have instilledin captured soldiers creates trauma in soldiers. Equally, the airingof the events that take place at battle fields such as the oppressionof the civilians and merciless killing of the enemies paints soldiersnegatively on their families. Such lasting images of badacts by soldiersin the minds of other people in the world create a depressionin soldiers. In fact, this one of the factors that makemany veterans to avoid interacting with other members of the society.There is also high likelihood that soldiers commit homicides afteraccessing the social media images and videos showing their friendsand colleagues suffering in the hands of the military.
Inconclusion, the things soldiers carry to war contribute to theincreased rate of PTSD in veterans. Soldiers carrytheir bodies to war as one of the weapons of war. Such a weapon issubject to pain and torture that can beinflictedby natural factors such as diseases and extreme temperatures. Thesame weapon can also be affected by human caused factors such astorture and bullet shots. The fear related to these kinds ofexperiences makes many soldiers liveterriblelives while at the battlefield. Soldiers carry heavy armor, gears andwear heavyclothing to war. The weight of these materials often exceeds a halfof their body weights, resulting in emotional suffering. Apart fromexperiencing difficulties in navigating the jungles with heavyattire and weapons, the soldiers find it hard to escape the unwantedcircumstances such as fire, accidents, and attacks. Child solderingis a common tool of war today. The increased use of children in themilitary has led to the loss of many lives since children are not ina position to identify danger. The increased production oflightweight weapons has influenced the increasednumber of children in the military mostly in the developed countries.The experiencing of the death of other children in the battle fieldin addition to the forcing of children to kill people influence theincrease of PTSD in children. Use of rape as a weapon of war alsoresults in post-traumatic disorders in soldiers. The raping of femalesoldiers in war affects their relationship with other members of thesociety. The association of raping act with specificsoldiers in war also makes such soldiers to seclude themselves fromother members of the society.The feeling of guilt because of the raping activity makes culpritsoldiers to live distressing lives. Theexperiences of combat in addition to other events that take place atthe battled fieldincrease the occurring of PTSD in soldiers.
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