Complex System Analysis
ComplexSystem is an organization made of many interacting components. It iscomposed of a variety of networks of interconnected agents thatinfluence each other, often in a non-linear manner whereby thecomplex phenomena or activities are broken down into simplevariables. The understanding and implementation of the new complexnetworks have dramatically been enhanced from the previous generationthat arises from the development of new technology and innovation ofnew machinery.
TheComplex System analysis, in general, involves the analysis of thecomponents featuring many interacting components such as processesand activities whose particular activity typically exhibitshierarchical self-organization, and the event is unable to be derivedfrom the summation of the business of the individual component. Inany the vital elements encountered include
Gettingeducation in the
Thepeople involved in the project need to get a prior knowledge on howto organize each activity within the organization. This would preventunnecessary incompetence at all levels of service.
Settinggoals for the project
Thesystem should clearly define other systems directly or indirectlylinked to it as well as how its prosperity would be determinedregarding financial and operational procedures.
Thiswould be in hierarchical organization whereby each person would beassigned clear job description depending on the level of educationand competency.
Identifyingthe critical system
Afterthe full analysis of the above elements, it would be possible todetermine the system that would best suit the organization itselftogether with the selected team. My selected system is that ofinstallation of manual cannon gunnery developed in the earlyseventeenth century designed to load, fire and deploy pieces offireballs.
Inthe manual cannon gunnery, the system involves a series of steps.Firstly, the call for fire is received, and then the Fire DirectionOfficer issues the firing order. The computer is designed to recordthe target information on the Record of Fire. The Horizontal ControlOperator (HCO) plots the target location on the firing chart anddetermines map range. The Vertical Control Operator (VCO) determinesand announces Antonov AN-2 site to the target area, whereby the HCOplaces the target grid over the target location and then determinesthe chart range and chart deflection to the offset aim point.Notably, the computer system would determine AN-2 data and then usethe data to determine the SADARM (Project Sense and Destroy Armor)data. It would also determine the FS HOB correction and fuze settingto fire as well as the Quadrant elevation of fire.
PossibleHazards in the system
Accidents due to spillages and ammunition accidents
Firing of the wrong charge inappropriately
Leveling of the gunners in the wrong direction or rather using wrong base. This would affect the high angle fire operations.
The intrinsic hazardous systems such as lack of transportation and little power generations tend to be unavoidable sometimes, but their frequencies can be reached to monitor the situation.
Insertion of trigger shaft to test the functioning of the firing locks would block and hence break the lugs.
Attempt to gain vast ranges by the propellant charges and ignoring the FDC authorities from the firing tables would cause excessive heat and chamber pressures that cause distortion of the metal.
HazardChecklist for the Manual Cannon Gunnery
Isthe Fire Direction Centre (FDC) neat and orderly?
IsFire Director Officer able to access the ammunition status?
Arethe standards of the fire commands and fire order easily visible toall the persons in the FDC?
Doesthe physical arrangement of FDC allow the FDO to observe the workperformed especially during supervision to minimize the rate ofmovement?
Doesthe physical set up enable easy access to the equipment and forms ofinformation required for the performance of each duty?
TheFDCs need to be well organized and neat to provide the preciseinstructions in the cases of various targets. They would also achievethe ammunition status that direct them to the objectives and theirsurrounding environment need to be clearly arranged for easyaccessibility to every corner by FDOs especially during supervisions.
TheFDCs require fire commands that are used to provide pieces ofinformation pertaining the fire mission. The fire authorities havesome elements which are organized then announced systematically inthe same manner hence saving much of the time during the mission andeliminating confusions that may arise(Ram & Singh,2008).However, some other elements may need to be standardized to fitthe purpose and suit the various commands. On the other hand, theFDOSs act in a tactical manner during the fire order missions. Theyspecify the manner in which the target would be attacked by givingaccurate instructions on the best approach s against the targets
Inthe hierarchy FDC is organized into the following units
Fire Direction Officer(FDO)
Isthe head of all the FDC operations, trains and supervises the FDCoperations, announces the firing order and ensures accuracy in thefiring off data established from the gun
Chief fire direction computer
Heis the assistant of the FDO and technically expert and trainer in theFDC.He is also responsible for the accurate computation of all thedata collected during the survey and ensuring all the appropriaterecords are kept and maintained(Ozhan et.al., 2008). He also providesa smooth running of the operations during the entire 24-houroperation.
Fire Direction Computer
Istypically responsible for primarily computing of the firing data andgives the fire commands when the need to do so arises
Fire Direction Specialist
Isinvolved in the controlling of the fire alarm and is divided into
HorizontalControl Operator that announces the chart data maintains the originalfiring chart.
VerticalControl Operator that determines and announces the target sites andmaintains the secondary firing chart.
Doesthe FDO issue a clear fire order IAW posted standards?
Isit necessary for a call for fire authenticated?
Isit necessary to monitor and record the call for fire by thecomputers?
Isthe initial data determined by the quickest means for a betterresponse?
Mostof the activities are involved at night when much illumination isrequired. Lighting is supported by illuminating projectile used toilluminate a designated region for better visualizing of distantenemy operations (Schueremans & Gemert, 2007). Its mechanisms ofoperations are organized into the following techniques firstly, theone-gun illumination Patterns which becomes applicable when firingone round at a time. Secondly, the two gun lighting patterns thatbecome relevant when illumination that would not be furnished by onlyone arm is required and lastly the four gun illumination pattern thataims to illuminate a large portion of the area within the stipulatedtime.
Firingtable muzzle velocity
Propellantweight and temperature
Theprojectile is one of the major components in the cannon, and it hassome components such as the bourrelet, obturating band, and therotating group. The bourrelet centers the forward part of theprojectile, and it is the only portion of the shell that bears on thelands of the tube as soon as the missile is fired. The rotating bandis carefully sealed around the body of the projectile, whereby itwould provide forward obturation to prevent gas escape around theprojectile. The obturating band is a band in the projectile that ismajorly plastic in nature and as well aims at providing forwardobturation by minimizing gas escape around the projectile.
Thetargets are often circular paper on which grid lines are printed andfurther calibrated with a scale known as azimuth scale, usuallyprinted around the outer edge of the target grid material. Itsmechanisms of actions involve an arrow that typically extends acrossits center to keenly indicate the goal lines of the distant observerthat require series of operation techniques such as plotting thetarget position, planning observer correction targets and finallydetermining the angle T.
Thefiring chart is a graph, on which the targeted points and locationsare accurately designed. It represents a graphical representation ofa portion or area used to determine various distances. The commonlyused materials in its installation include grid sheet, map, andphotomap with distinct dimensions. A grid layer is designed with bothprinted horizontal and vertical lines called grid lines(Erl, 2007).Amap is a graphic diagram that represents given area on a piece ofpaper or chart and is drawn to scale. Among the other components, itis considered the best and accurate outfit in the surveying of alarge piece of ground that has to be summarized for easy targeting.Photomap, however, is a document in reproduction form that representsan aerial photograph. This enables the accurate viewing of theportions that are too much inaccessible to be reproduced on a portionof paper as a map. Such targets include the peak of very highmountains and the sky in the case of targeted aerial bodies such asthe aero plane.
Thehazards majorly encountered in the system involve the following
Theyinclude propellant and the projectile movement whose action wouldaffect the velocity with which the projectile leaves the muzzle. Aswell as wear of tubes which is caused by the continued firing of acannon by the action of the motion generated by the projectile andhot glasses, hence the greater the tube wear, the more muzzlevelocity decreases. The wear would be minimized by careful cleaningof both the machines and the ammunition in addition to chargeselection.
Lackof proper training of personnel
Thisentails the inability to educate the staff in the manner they wouldaccurately manage their roles as stipulated by the management. Itarises due to lack of knowledge from the chief computers (Day, 2013).A group of chief computers who have a similar experience on the tasksbeing taught does the training. The possible outcome would beincompetence that would rather cause the collapse of the project.However, the project strictly requires either chief computers or theFDC who reduce the boredom of the trainees.
Removalof the safety latch firing action plungerand replacing it with inverted primer before closing the breech wouldresult into blown breechblocks and housing.
Attachmentof the lanyards howitzers directly to the trigger shaft wouldresult into prompt damage of carriage and record mechanism.
Loadingof the howitzer without using the tray,would cause improper seating and damaged rotating basting, resultingin erratic fires as result of frequent rubbing and friction. Thegenerated fire would burn the protective tubes leading to thecollapse of the mission.
Exceedingthe maximum rate of fire, asauthorized order would cause the gun tubes to become hot, causing anincrease in pressure within the system. This would, in turn, causewear and tear on the delicate tubes that are vulnerable.
Inappropriatedigging of the fire pits, ina way that the bottom of the pit slopes upwards toward the back,would minimize the maximum elevation and reduce the high angle fire.
Ammunitionaccidents,as a result of spillages, would also cause hazardous incidence duringthe mission. However, during such cases, the individual responsibleis the officer in charge of the battery position that would renderfirst aid, notify the FDO, preserve all the witnesses, and hencerecord all the data needed.
Thesafety measures involved:
Itwould be advisable that all the persons put on protective masks andheavy gloves for individuals handling ammunition to minimize thedirect contact with the chemicals (Glover et.al., 2012). Besides, thewhite phosphorous shells would also be held vertically and protectedfrom extreme temperature to avoid unbalanced projectile.Decontaminating agents should also be carried during the mission.
Theyare much sensitive to moisture and shock, and should, therefore, becleaned to check for any corrosion and to ensure the seal is tightlyheld in place.
Theyhave hygroscopic properties and hence would be held and closely tiedto the propelling charge to provide the diameter of the whole chargeis equivalent throughout its length.
Segregation of ammunition lots
Eachammunition within the cannon should have its lot number accuratelyand distinctly displayed by the chief of the section Fire DirectionComputer recorded and evaluated for its convenience.
Day,M. J. (2013). Applicationof Mensuration Technology to Improve the Accuracy of FieldArtilleryFiring Unit Location.ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS.
Erl,T. (2007). So:principles of service design.Prentice Hall Press.
Glover,J. D., Sarma, M. S., & Overbye, T. (2012). PowerSystem Analysis & Design, SI Version.Cengage Learning.
Özhan,G., Oğuztüzün, H., & Evrensel, P. (2008). Modeling of fieldartillery tasks with live sequence charts. TheJournal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications,Methodology, Technology, 5(4),219-252.
Ram,M., & Singh, S. B. (2008). Availability and cost analysis of aparallel redundant complex system with two types of failure underpreemptive-resume repair discipline using Gumbel-Hougaard familycopula in repair. InternationalJournal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering, 15(04),341-365.
Schueremans,L., & Gemert, D. (2007). Splinesand other Metamodels in Reliability Analysis.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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