Cycle of Violence
TheNational Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV) outlines partnerviolence as being the deliberate intimidation, battery, physical andsexual assaults, and any other abusive actions performed by a partneragainst the other as a means of systematically exercising power andcontrol (NCADV). The regularity and seriousness of domestic violencecan vary from case to case. Nevertheless, something that is common isone partner’s constant attempts to maintain control and power overthe other person. Dr. Lenore Walker developed the theory to try and explain the repetitive patterns commonly seen inabusive relationships and domestic violence cases. This paperanalyzes domestic violence in the United States, with a focus on the.
Statisticsby The NCADV show that a third of women and a quarter of men havebeen victims of physical violence of committed by a partner at somepoint in their lives. The NCADV also state that 1 in every 7 womenhave been victims of stalking by their intimate partners within theirlifetime. The statistics are much better for men (1 in 18) (NCADV).
TYPESOF PARTNER VIOLENCE
Physicalabuse comprises of physical assault, sexual assault, and batteryperpetrated by an intimate partner on another as a means of power andcontrol. It can lead to severe injuries or even death. It also occursalongside other forms of abuse. Psychological or emotional abuseinvolves the subjecting of an intimate partner to behavior that mightresult in psychological trauma such as depression, anxiety, andpost-traumatic stress disorder. Behavior that might lead to this formof abuse include bullying and intimidation and threatening to causeharm (CDC).
Sexualabuse involves the unwanted sexual behavior by an intimate partnerupon the other partner. Depending on the jurisdiction, it mightamount to rape if it involves forced sex. Economic abuse occurs whenan intimate partner controls the other person’s ability to accesseconomic resources, which in turn reduces the victim’s ability tosupport themselves. This will then force them to be dependent on theperpetrator financially. Legal abuse often happens when a victimtakes legal action against an abusive partner, who then uses legalmeans to frustrate the victim through actions such as failing toproduce documents required by the court, seeking delays, frequentlychanging lawyers, and making malicious claims about the victim(NCADV).
THECYCLE OF VIOLENCE AND MARY’S CASE STUDY
Thetheory of the cycle of violence aims to explain why and how theabusive partner’s behavior might change dramatically from time totime. It also offers an insight into why the victim of partner abuseand domestic violence continues facing the abusive or violentsituations. The theory was developed by Lenore Walker in 1979. It hasdifferent stages:
Build-upphase. Thereare ordinary relations between the individuals. However, there areinstances of increasing tensions symbolized by emotional, verbal oreconomic abuse.
Mary’srelationship with her boyfriend Jim began well. However, she becameill and had to stay at home to recover. It fell on Jim to pay all thebills. Initially, he was okay with it, but slowly he began to showsigns of stress. He would scold Mary for being lazy.
Thestand over phase. Theabusive partner’s behavior escalates such that a burst of tensionbecomes inevitable. In this period, the victim will feel as though heor she is under the power of the abuser. The abuser’s continuedattacks will continue to weaken the victim even more (NCADV).
Maryfelt that because of her illness, that she could not explain herstaying at home to Jim for fear that he might get worked up even moreand scold her even more, which would hurt her even more.
Theexplosion phase. Thissignifies the peak of abuse by the abuser, who undergoes a release oftension. This release of tension might become addictive, and theymight be incapable of dealing with their anger in any other way.
Oneday Jim came home from work, fuming that Mary’s condition hadlanded him in debts. He told her to stop feigning illness and thatshe should get back to work. An emotionally hurt and distressed Marygot up to get a glass of water but Jim saw it as a sign of disrespectand punched her so hard that she lost consciousness.
Theremorse phase. Theabuser feels embarrassed about his or her behavior after which theybecome withdrawn from the relationship. They then attempt to validatetheir actions to themselves and to others, not knowing that they havebecome addicted to the tension release they have undergone.
AsMary was recovering from Jim’s assault at home, Jim apologized forthe incident, saying that he lost control of his tempers. He thenbecame silent. He no longer scolded and abused her.
Thepursuit phase.The abuser makes a promise to the victim that they will never beviolent. They might try to blame their abusive actions on otherfactors such as drugs, stress, and alcohol. They might show attentionto the victim, and even buy them gifts. The victim, on the otherhand, will feel relief that the violence is over.
Jimthen promised that he was never going to abuse Mary in any way. Hestated that his actions were because of work-related stress that madehim unhappy. He even bought her a diamond necklace. This made Maryhappier as she figured that the worst was behind them.
Thehoneymoon phase. Bothindividuals might be in denial concerning the magnitude of the abuse.Both of them will not want the relationship to end, and will,therefore, be contented with ignoring the possibility that violencemight occur again. This stage will fade and the cycle might startagain.
Aftera few months, Mary fully recovered from her illness and resumed herjob. However, she recently began having worries because of Jim’sincreasing pressure at work. She worries that it might push him overthe edge again.
OVERALLEFFECTS OF PARTNER VIOLENCE
Onthe victim. Victimsof partner abuse suffer physical, reproductive, and psychologicaleffects arising from the abuse they underwent. Partner abuse cansometimes result in physical injuries such as bruises, broken bones,bruises, knife wounds, headaches, back pain, and even brain injuries.This is especially serious given the NCADV statistic that shows that1 in every 3 women have been victims of physical violence committedby their partners (NCADV). Health conditions such as asthma,cardiovascular disease, and gastrointestinal diseases might alsostart as a consequence of partner abuse.
Victimsmight also experience effects that touch on their reproductive livesand psychological well-being. Their reproductive lives might beaffected by sexual dysfunction, preterm deliveries, delayed prenatalcare for their infants, and unintended pregnancies. They might alsocontract sexually transmitted infections such as HIV/AIDS from theirabusive partners. They might also experience depression, anxiety, lowself-esteem, suicidal tendencies, anti-social behaviors, and theinability to trust other people.
Onthe victim’s family. Partnerabuse can severely affect the couple’s family members, especiallychildren. Any family member who witnesses partner abuse can becomeanxious and fearful. They will never feel safe (for both themselvesand the victim). They will spend most of their times worrying abouttheir own and the victim’s safety, and because of the power andcontrol that they see in the abuser, they will feel powerless. Thiswill make them not divulge any information pertaining to the abusegoing on to any outside persons.
Onthe society. TheCDC indicates that medical and mental health expenses due to partnerviolence were $8.3 billion in 2003. Even after the abuse has stopped,the yearly health medical costs can continue for up to 15 years(CDC). Victims of partner violence can lose up to 8 million days ofpaid work every year. Victims are also more likely to find it hard tobe employed, or to perform one’s duties properly, leading to lostproductivity.
Partnerviolence is a serious issue affecting the majority of the nation’scitizens. The direct and indirect consequences are disastrous foreveryone involved. In spite of the harmful effects, the majority ofthe victims of partner violence find it hard to get out of theirabusive relationships. The cycle of violence theory has shed lightconcerning this.
CDC.Intimate Partner Violence. 2017. Web. 12 4 2017.
NCADV.STATISTICS. 2017. Web. 12 4 2017.
No related posts.