Discussion on Staphylococcus Infection
Discussionon Staphylococcus Infection
Staphylococcus infections are diseases that result from infection byStaphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria can live in a human, in animalsor water. Human beings carry them in their skin, noses, throats andstool. It can survive in healthy people without causing any harmful.However, people with weak body immunity are more likely to contractStaphylococcus infections. Several hospital cases have arisenreporting cases of staphylococcus infections. Doctors have raisedtheir concern about cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus and challenges faced with treating such resistant strains(Harris etal., 2013). More research is going on to discover drugsthat can treat the resistant form of bacteria. The bacteria havedeveloped immunity against a wide range of antibiotics that arereferred as superbugs.
Discussionon Staphylococcus Infection
Staphylococcus bacteria are microscopic microbes that can survive inmost environments. The bacteria can be found even in the humannostrils. They are gram-positive bacteria that cause infections. Theytake advantage of immune compromised individuals and attack them. Thebacteria sometimes become resistant to antibiotics, and they are hardto treat at this moment. The paper will discuss the Staphylococcusinfection.
HistoricalTimeline for Staphylococcus Infection
The bacteria was discovered in 1880 by a Scottish surgeon. Heobserved the bacteria while performing experiments to confirm thatmicrobes were involved in the formation of pus-filled infections. Hestained the microbe with methylaniline, and he was able to studytypes of cocci. In the year 1882, he named it Staphylococcus as itsshape appeared as that of the bunch of spheres (Tonget al., 2015).
Later, Anton Rosenbach isolated two varieties of the microbe from apure culture. He divided them into golden species and white species.Golden species was Staphylococcus aureus while the whitespecies was Staphylococcus albus, which are today calledStaphylococcus epidermidis.
Vaccines have failed to control staph infections. The infection hasbeen indicated as a big threat to patients in hospitals. Researchersare trying to produce a vaccine that will control the spread of thebacteria especially from vital organs like lungs, heart or in theblood (Otto,2013). However, the trials are proving to be hard toachieve. It has been reported that patient who take a vaccine againststaph and happen to be infected with the bacteria, dies more quicklythan those who use placebo (Periasamyet al., 2012).
Staph infection can be controlled using penicillin, amoxicillin, andmethicillin. More tests are undergoing to test whether the bacteriais resistant to methicillin. Laboratory tests using patient`s bloodare used to determine if the infection is caused bymethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Developmentof Staphylococcus into Superbug
Staphylococcus attacks are common in hospitals. They cause infectionscalled nosocomial infections or hospital-acquired infections. Most ofthe nosocomial infections are caused by strains of S. aureusthat are resistant to antibiotics. The resistant strain is calledmethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Inmethicillin resistance, an acquired mecA gene transcriptpenicillin-binding protein that is insensitive to methicillin.Different types of antibiotics, the β-lactamshave been developed to control the infection, but still, they providepoor results in the control of the staphylococcus bacteria (Cragoet al., 2012).
MajorAdvances and Breakthrough in Treatment of Staphylococcus
Thescientists have identified a new type of drug that treatsStaphylococcusaureusthat was resistant to traditional antibiotics (Calcoen,Elias and Yu, 2015). The new drugs interfere with the virulence determinants have provedto be the new approach to controlling the bacteria infection. Theresearch uses Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) and peptide toxins thatwill control the multiplication of the pathogens. The same toxinswill be used in control of S.aureus.
Thescientists have discovered the ATP-binding cassette transporter whosefunction was not known, has the function of exporting Phenol-solublemodulins. It provides a single target in obstructing the formation ofPSM. The scientists have found that this transport system is commonto all S. aureus and crucial in bacteria multiplication and spread ofdisease.
Theexperiments found that a drug that would interfere with the transportsystem not only limit production of PSM toxin but also kills thebacteria. They also suspect the transport system is common in otherpathogens like S.epidermidisthat is common in catheters and pacemakers. However, they areplanning to further their studies on PSMs and understand how toeffectively control the transport system and block spread of diseases(Chungand Toh, 2014).
Inconclusion, S.aureusis one of the causal organism of nosocomial infections. The organismattack patients with compromised immune system. Development ofresistant to antibiotics makes it hard to treat this bacterialinfection. They threaten patients life where some are left fightingfor their life. Hence, new drugs to control the bacterial infectionsshould be developed to control mortality rates in hospitals.
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