refers to the presence of different varying elements within apopulation. The difference can be in terms of age, race, gender, andreligion of people making up the population. Ferguson’s Thereorder of Things: The University and its Pedagogies of MinorityDifferencediscusses the relationship between minority populations and nationalinstitutions such as universities, in order to show theintersectional dynamics between the minority subjects and theacademy. Therefore, he explains that the relationship between theuniversity and the minority population is one that is affected byissues of power.1
Theauthor establishes that university as a national institution is onethat exercises authority with a plurality of relationships because itaddresses and monitors the differences in the minority.2Therefore, universities as institutions of higher learning are tiedto the realm of a countries politics. The institutions are subject tothe power of a nation because they have a role of testing andregulating the differences of the minority, given that they act aslaboratories that give rise to political and economic truth.Therefore, they serve as an articulator of a nation’s problems, andtry to find solutions to the problems by producing human capital toaddress the issues.3
Institutionsof higher learning establish the tone for a country in recognizing,neutralizing, and incorporating minority differences. The rise ofminority rights movements brought about a shift from academic focusto voices that are traditionally disenfranchised leading to the riseof interdisciplinary committees. The interdisciplinary fields focusedon the power of the institutions of higher learning, the power of thenation, and also showed the importance of the minority.
Lumumba-Zapatastudent movement of 1969 at the University of California was anassociation that attempted to counter the power of the university andestablishes an inception of institutionalism. Their actions helped inthe formulation of policies that monitored and regulated minoritydifferences which promoted diversity.4Similar movements forced New York City College to initiate openadmission policies because the college was full of white students ina neighborhood that was historically diverse. Therefore, thesepolicies brought a link between universities and the nation whichfurther contributed to the inclusion of marginalized populations, afactor which promoted diversity.
Academicexclusion and integration of the minority population were based onmerit and qualifications which brought about a national state thatwas coordinated around a racial reform from one that was oncesegregated.5The move of exclusion and integration does not only apply to ethnicgroups but also covers queer subjects. Integration is also used toneutralize the minority differences for instance, the minoritydifference of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) wasabsorbed in a regulatory climate that remodeled the differences asproof of the progress of the academic institution and therejuvenation of a common countries culture. 6
Inconclusion, the minority subjects struggle to be recognized was facedwith a lot of resistance therefore, bringing about the questionwhether it was wrong for the minority subjects to seek recognition inthe institutions of higher learning. The minority community shouldwork towards resuscitating the vitality in the meanings of minoritydifferences and culture. Finally, the evaluation of integration andexclusion of the minority serves as a critique of the archivalpowers.
Banks,James A. Culturaldiversity and education.Routledge, 2015.
Ferguson,Roderick A. Thereorder of things.University of Minnesota Press, 2012.
1 Roderick Ferguson. The reorder of things. (University of Minnesota Press, 2012), 7.
2 Roderick Ferguson. The reorder of things, 6.
3 James Banks Cultural diversity and education. (Routledge, 2015),11
4 Roderick Ferguson. The reorder of things,4
5 Roderick Ferguson. The reorder of things,5
6 Roderick Ferguson. The reorder of things,214
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