Effective Birth Control in Public Schools
EffectiveBirth Control in Public Schools
Teenagepregnancy has substantial enduring consequences for adolescentParents as well as their children (Matlin, 2013). Studies have shownthat pregnant teenagers have low levels of completing school.Additionally, they also likely to have many children compared tonon-teenaged pregnant. Moreover, their kids end up leadingimpoverished lives with low education attainment, poor health resultsas well as higher teenage pregnancy rates than those children thatare born to older mothers (Matlin, 2013). In addition to theconsequences that the teenage family faces, teenage pregnancy alsohas significant outcomes to the society. Welfare costs increase tocater for these families. For instance, in 1996 the federalgovernment spent more than thirty-eight billion dollars to supportsthe teenage families including the older families that emerged fromthe same issues (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015). The aim ofthis paper is to research on various birth controls available foryoung adults in relation to costs, insurance cover, merits and sideeffects. Additionally, it will recommend two effective birth controlsto be available in public high schools to reduce unintended teenagepregnancy.
Recentstatistics have shown that young women aged between fifteen tonineteen years gave birth to two hundred forty-nine thousands andseventy-eight babies in the year 2014 (American Academy ofPediatrics, 2015). This amount equates to twenty-four points twobirthrates per one thousand women for this group which is a noteddecrease of about nine percent of the total births in 2013. In 1991,the rate of teenage pregnancy was very high with sixty one pointeight per one thousand teenage women. Accordingly, more of theabove-stated consequences were experienced with the largestpercentage of both the young families and the federal government.Nevertheless, in the recent years, teenage pregnancies have beensignificantly decreasing thereby reducing its overall consequences ofwhich it is good news to the nation. Some of the reasons attributedto this drop include “reduction or delay in engaging in sexualactivities, use of birth controls and efficient education on sexeducation as well as birth control methods” (Planned Parenthood,2017). However, there is still about one thousands and seven hundredsteens birth per week which need to be taken care, especially for thesexually active adolescents.
Accordingto Smith (2015, various “birth control options can effectivelyprevent unintended pregnancy especially in the teenage years”.However, there are those methods that cannot apply to this age, forinstance, withdrawal, outercourse, breastfeeding and natural orrhythm methods as well as abstinence. Although these methods are freeof charge, almost all of them will not work for a teenage girl.Natural, outer course and withdraw will finally lead to pregnancywithin the first year in addition to high risks of STDs diseases.These methods are mostly applied in stable relationships with noworries of STDs and intended pregnancies. Conversely, abstinence isthe “most efficient and safe birth control method” with onehundred percent avoidance of “STDs and pregnancy and no physicaldisadvantage” (Matlin, 2013). Despite being the most efficient way,it is not widely used because it is hard to maintain. Permanentsterilization such as tubal ligation, implant or pressure andvasectomy are not advisable for teens because they still need to givebirth at some time in their lifetime. Though they are said “to be99% efficient” and can be covered by insurance, they can beaccompanied by side effects such as “incomplete disfigurement,implant dislodgement, and incorrect placement, in the projected timeframe” (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015).
Useof condoms is among the most effective methods of controlling birthrates as well as STDs. There are both male and female condoms to usein as birth control options. They are readily available and costeffective in many health departments, drugstore or grocery store. Onepiece of female condoms goes for four dollars while a male condom canbe sold for one dollar per piece (Planned Parenthood, 2017). They arealso administered at no cost in some schools. They do not require anytests for a person to use it. According to Matlin (2013) “Malecondoms have no adverse effects on women, but they are said todecrease pleasure in men.” Therefore, condoms are in the frontlinewhen it comes to choosing a suitable birth control method because oftheir effectiveness, easy-to –use and ease accessibility.
Depo-Proverais an injectable birth control methods which are given in every threemonths. It prevents pregnancy through the “use of hormoneprogestin, and when used correctly without inconsistency, it provesto be a highly efficient method with less than one percent ofunintended pregnancy” (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015). Itsmerits include long-lasting safety, lighter periods and less crampingas well it prevents uterine cancer. It is insurable as well it cancost around forty-eight dollars per three months. Some publichospitals also provide it for free. On the other side, its sideeffects include “weight gain, irregular bleeding, blood clotsrisks, libido changes, bone thinning and two years period ofregaining fertility” (Planned Parenthood, 2017).
ThePatch or Pill or Nuva-Ring: method
Thisprocess dated back in 1960, and it is known for its immediate successwhen applied correctly. The three different ways in this mode, usethe same notion of controlling menses using hormones. The ring,patch, and pill are worn and taken respectively daily for threesubsequent weeks and then a break of one week. The patch and the ringusually cost eighty dollars per week while the pill prices at fiftydollars per month (Planned Parenthood, 2017). All of them require aphysical examination before prescription which can cost between zeroto two hundred dollars per visit. Mainly this method is covered byvarious plans of health insurance depending on whether it is astandard or particular type.
Nexplanon/Implanon or Contraceptive Implant
Mostof the Pediatrics recommends Implanon to be among “the first optionfor teens’ birth control methods” (American Academy ofPediatrics, 2015). It is a supple plastic implant containing hormonewhich is put in the upper arm under the skin. Although it does notoffer protection from STDs, it is most efficient with more thanninety-nine percent success. The archetypal failure is habitually0.05% rate in the first year (Smith, 2015). The most common advantageof this method includes long-term and an effective method of birthcontrol for three years. Then once it is implanted, the problem offorgetting like in taking pills is over. The cost of inserting canrange from “zero to eighty hundred dollars for those three years”(Planned Parenthood, 2017). It is covered by most of the insurancehealth plans as well government programs such as Medicaid whichprovide it for free of charge. Its side effects are few which includeirregular bleeding and rare cases of acne, headaches and weight gain.
Currently,there are many alternatives for preventing unintended pregnancieswhich are mostly inexpensive to most of the people. These methodsinclude “implanted devices, hormonal methods and barrier methods”(American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015). They have been made availableand easily accessible by HRSA Guidelines to all women under the Actof Affordable Care. Accordingly, the teenagers need to be educated onthe various types of preventing unintended pregnancies that thegovernment has availed. The teenage pregnancy decreasing rates thathave occurred over the past two decades is associated withavailability and education on such methods. As we have seen, there isstill a good number of teenagers who still become pregnancy due tolack of knowledge of the available birth controls methods. This maybe attributed to the fact that this education is only provided by theparents of which sometimes they may fail to educate the teens due tothe fear of early engagement in sex activities. Thus, I feel thatschools should take this responsibility to educate the students onthe effective methods of preventing unwanted pregnancies to continuereducing the remaining part of teenage pregnancy. The reason behindschool trust is because teens will continue to have sex whether theyteach them or not and most probably they will not discuss with theirparents concerning their sexual behaviors. Therefore, if this is thecase, then teens will be in a situation whereby they will have no oneto help them to get contraceptives or to take them to see a doctor inthe event of an examination or even to educate them on how to besafe.
Thus,I think that schools should take the responsibility of educating thestudents on how to prevent the sexually transmitted diseases as wellas teen pregnancy. Sex education should not only focus on abstinencebut also insist on how to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Both girls andboys need to be informed about the various available methods. Aswell, both emotional and physical changes concerning pregnancy’sexpectations should be taught for the adolescent to have an idea ofwhat it means. I would recommend male and female condoms to bedispensed for free in the bathrooms for the teens to use them whenthey need. I also think that implants should be availed for those whoneed to use them but at least their parents should be consulted aboutthe issue to know whether they agree or not.
Conclusively,most of the teens will always engage in sexual activities leading toteenage pregnancy as well as STDs. Though statistics shows thatteenage pregnancy has been decreasing over the recent years, there isstill a significant percentage that needs to be dealt. Schools needto take the lead in educating teens about effective birth controlmethods including their affordability and access. They should alsoprovide them in the schools since now it is made easier with theAffordable Care Act. By doing this, we hope that teenage pregnancywill continue to decrease until all unintended pregnancies areeradicated.
Matlin,M. W. (2013). Thepsychology of women.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Smith,L. (2015). Birth control methods: types, effectiveness and sideeffects. Retrieved April 01, 2017, fromhttp://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/298039.php?page=2
AmericanAcademy of Pediatrics.(2015). Effective Birth Control for Sexually Active Teens. RetrievedApril 01, 2017, fromhttps://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/teen/dating-sex/Pages/Birth-Control-for-Sexually-Active-Teens.aspx
PlannedParenthood. (2017). Birth Control Methods – Birth Control Options.Retrieved April 01, 2017, fromhttps://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/birth-control
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