Theglomerulonephritis (GN) prevalence rate has been increasingregrettably in the recent two decades. As a result, scholars andhealth professionals have engaged in endless and consistentscientific studies to understand causes and effective mitigationmeasures to address the problem. Ideally, glomerulonephritis is aterm that defines various types of kidney’s health complications. results to inflammation of tiny filters in thekidney (Parmar 1). In most instances, the inflammation leads to thekidney damage. The condition presents various signs and symptoms suchas high blood pressure, pink urine, fluid retention, and foamy urine.Complications associated with the glomerulonephritis include chronickidney diseases, acute kidney failure, high blood pressure, andhephrotic syndrome. Although health professionals have identifiedvarious strategies and interventions to deal with the problem,glomerulonephritis is common in developed and developing states(Suarta71).Therefore, the analysis and reviews of recent articles and researchfindings can support the identification of sustainable and lastingsolutions to the problem. The evaluation can also help in theidentification of areas that require radical improvement in theexisting intervention measures to deal with high incidences of theglomerulonephritis.
Scholarsdescribe the glomerulonephritis as the collection of kidney diseasesthat damages capillaries in the cortex of the kidney (Suarta71).The condition is among the popular causes of the kidney failure. also results to severe renal health complications.Some of the notable risk factors for the GN include autoimmunedisorders, viral infections, acute glomerulonephritis, and the familyhistory (Kanjanabuch,Talerngsak, Wipawee Kittikowit, and Somchai 269).
Studieshave identified various causes of the GN. In most instances,uncontrolled diabetes results to the damage of the kidney. Thescarring of the kidney due to the Focal segmental glomerulosclerosisalso undermines its results and functions (Kanjanabuch,Talerngsak, Wipawee Kittikowit, and Somchai 269).The accumulation of the IgA antibodies leads to the tissue damage.Health professionals further affirm that the autoantibodies in thesystemic lupus erythematosus attack the kidney tissues resulting toits damage. Furthermore, the existence of the acuteglomerulonephritis results to the development of the GN. Geneticfactors also lead to infections in the kidney (Hricik,Moonja and John 889).Health professionals also affirm that high incidences of chronichealth complications such as uncontrolled high blood pressureincrease GN incidences.
does not present significant symptoms and signs. However, expertshave identified various essential signs that can facilitate the earlyidentification of the health problem. Some of the common signsinclude excessive urination, blood in the urine, short cough andbreath, vomiting, sleeping problems, dry skins. Other popularsymptoms involve signs of anemia, loss of weight and appetite, musclecramps and aches, nosebleeds, and foamy urine. Neurological symptomsinclude confusion, delirium, drowsiness, and reduced alertnesslevels. In most instances, health professionals use the presentedsigns to diagnose GN. However, the access of medical history,physical examination, and blood test help to identify the presence ofthe complication. Furthermore, Kidney biopsy, Intravenous pyelogram,CT and MRI scan, Ultrasound scan, and 24-hour urine protein analysiscan support the diagnosis and testing processes (Nasr21).
Sofar, experts and health professionals have not identified a reliablecure for . However, the existing mitigationmeasures depend on individuals and causes of the problem. Besides,intervention measures revolve around controlling glomerulonephritis’signs and symptoms. Therefore, the reduction of the blood pressure,the maintenance of the body fluid, the maintenance of balance in thebody protein, and participation in physical activities support themanagement and treatment processes. Scholars also support theadoption of reliable means to prevent the problem (Kanjanabuch,Talerngsak, Wipawee Kittikowit, and Somchai 269).In most instances, behaviors changes, maintenance of hygiene,balanced body weight, the control of diabetes, and the management ofautoimmune disorders support the reduction of the glomerulonephritis’prevalence rate. The control of blood pressure and the avoidance oftoxic substances also facilitate the prevention process(Rodriguez-Iturbe,Bernardo, and James 55).
ParmarMalvinder. Acute . MedscapeJournal,1.2. (August 04, 2016): 1-16
Parmarundertook a research on August 2016 in the United States and otherdeveloping and developed states. The study findings indicate thatglomerulonephritis accounts for over 10-15% of the glomerular healthcomplications in the United States. The subclinical nature of thedisease is the major cause of its advanced complications. However,despite the adoption of intensive mitigation measures, theglomerulonephritis’ prevalence rate is relatively high. The problemalso results to severe problems such as the renal failures. Thedevelopment of the complications is also fast as compared to otherrelated health problems.
Thestudy further reveals that the problem has been reducing in somestates. For instance, glomerulonephritis prevalence rate in Japan hasreduced in the last two decades. The infection rate has reduced byover 45% since early1990s. However, the condition is relatively highin some states such as South Africa, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia,India, and Pakistan. The condition is also common in both male andfemale. However, glomerulonephritis is popular among male patients. infections among children have been increasing inthe last five years. The condition is popular among children agedbetween five and15 years. is less common amongpeople who are above 40 years. The study also indicates that theproblem is high among individuals from various races and ethicalbackgrounds (Parmar 5).
Parmaralso affirm that glomerulonephritis emerges due to the glomerulardeposition. The condition results to over 50% enlargement of thekidney. The enlargement leads to infiltration of the kidney withpolymorphonucleocytes. However, there are limited information on someof the factors that trigger the emergence and development of theglomerulonephritis. The study also classifies causal factors for theglomerulonephritis into two broad categories, infections, andnon-infections. The streptococcus species have been the main cause ofthe acute glomerulonephritis. Scholars categorize the streptococcusinto two essential serotypes, serotype 12, and serotype 49. Theserotype 49 is the post-streptococcal nephritis that emerges due toskin infections. The infection is common in the southern region ofthe United States. The serotype 12 is the post-streptococcalnephritis that occurs in the upper respiratory infections. Thecondition develops after 3 weeks of the acute infection.
Onthe contrary, the non-infectious causes involve the miscellaneousconditions and primary renal diseases. Some of the multisystemsystemic diseases that result to the glomerulonephritis includevasculitis, collagen-vascular diseases, hypersensitivity vasculitis,good pasture syndrome, henoch-Schönlein purpura, and olyarteritisnodosa. Primary renal diseases that can lead to glomerulonephritisare idiopathic rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and Bergerdiseases. The miscellaneous noninfectious causes are Serum sickness,Diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, and irradiation of Wilms tumor(Parmar).
Therefore,the study emphasizes on the significant of training and education toreduce increased cases of glomerulonephritis infections. The adoptionof effective and integrative training program can help communitymembers to understand the significant of salt restriction during theacute phase. The salt restriction can helps to control thevolume-related hypertension and edema. The monitoring of the bloodpressure can also support the reduction of the implications of theglomerulonephritis. Intensive training can also support theunderstanding of the significant of ongoing long-term monitoring ofthe patients’ health status. The consideration of the proteinrestriction and ACE inhibitors can also advance the implication ofthe health problem to patients. Besides, the early antibiotictreatment process minimizes the spread of the complication topatients (Parmar 6).
Therefore,the article provides recent and accurate information on causes of theglomerulonephritis. The study also highlights some of the riskfactors that advance the problem. The scholar also reveals thesignificant of information and awareness in reducing the implicationsof the problem.
Empiricaldata indicate that glomerulonephritis is a deadly and severe healthcomplication. The disease undermines normal operations andfunctioning of the kidney. Health professionals and kidney expertsalso link the problem to high mortality rate among children indeveloped and developing states. Therefore, the review of recent dataand research can support the identification of integrative mitigationmeasures. The analysis of the existing data also enhances theunderstanding of causes and risk factors that result toglomerulonephritis. Besides, health professionals use the presentedsigns to identify reliable mitigation and prevention measures.Therefore, to reduce glomerulonephritis prevalence rate, modernprofessionals have the mandate to undertake intensive researches onthe problem. The evaluation of the existing data can also facilitatethe formulation of policies and strategies to control the problem.Health professionals also need to use the existing information toidentify the missing information and competencies in the contemporaryhealth facilities on glomerulonephritis prevention and treatmentprocesses.
Hricik,Donald E., Moonja Chung-Park, and John R. Sedor."." New England Journal of Medicine339.13 (2017): 888-899.
Kanjanabuch,Talerngsak, Wipawee Kittikowit, and Somchai Eiam-Ong. "An updateon acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis worldwide." NatureReviews Nephrology5.5 (2017): 259-269.
Nasr,Samih. "Acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis in the modernera: experience with 86 adults and review of the literature."Medicine87.1 (2016): 21-32.
ParmarMalvinder. “Acute .” Medscape Journal, 1.2.(August 04, 2016): 1-16
Rodriguez-Iturbe,Bernardo, and James M. Musser. "The current state ofpoststreptococcal glomerulonephritis." Journalof the American Society of Nephrology19.10 (2016): 55-64.
Suarta,I. Ketut. "Erythrocyturia and proteinuria conversion inpost-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis." PaediatricaIndonesiana46.2 (2017): 71-6.
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