Happiness in the Workplace
HAPPINESS IN WORKPLACE
Happinessin the Workplace
Workis the main pillar that defines individuals’ psychologicalwellbeing. Therefore, individuals engage in activities that haveimmediate and long-term benefits. Working environmentaltransformation also changes their operations and activities. Thechanges also have implications on employees’ psychological feelingand perspectives. Ideally, happiness in the workplace involves thesatisfaction levels among employees in an organization. The concepthappiness involves the individual’s subjective well-being (VanDe Voorde, Paauwe, & Van Veldhoven, 2014).
Happinessin an organization largely supports employees’ productivity and thesuccess of the entire company. In most instances, unhappy people donot pay full attention to their duties and obligations. Organizationsthat have the capacity to improve employees’ happiness have theability retain most of their productive and successful employees.Therefore, organization leaders need to identify and understandfactors that improve employees’ happiness and job satisfaction.
However,despite the significant and benefits of happiness among employees,research on employees’ happiness is relatively limited. Additionalresearch is required to provide adequate and sufficient informationto employers, academics, and practitioners on benefits of happyworking force (Bakker,& Oerlemans, 2015).Therefore, the literature review explores the existing researchfindings on happiness in workplace. The study develops the conceptualframework of happiness in the workplace. The research also identifiessome of the theories that support happiness among employees. Theanalysis further provides information on additional research that canhelp to boost employees’ happiness and satisfaction levels.
Happinessand Happiness at Work
Socialresearchers and philosophers describe happiness as pleasant feelingtowards an individual or an activity. Happiness is also theexperience of the positive affect and overall sense of satisfactionon emerging activities and issues (VanDe Voorde, Paauwe, & Van Veldhoven, 2014).In most instances, organizations employ employees with the ability tocreate the high level of happiness to customers. The concept has sofar acquired huge studies and covered in various fields such aseconomics, sociology, psychology, religion, and philosophy. Happinessis also a universal concept in all cultures. Happiness also helps todefine and shape individuals’ wellbeing.
Besides,work is a significant requirement in an individuals’ life. Peopleengage in productive economic activity to get rewards and benefits(Edmans,2014).However, social and economic changes in the modern society havechanged operations and activities in the workplace. As a result,changes in the modern working environment have social andpsychological implications that affect individuals’ happiness.Therefore, scholars indicate that companies’ leaders have the dutyto establish reliable strategies that will support the improvement ofemployees’ level of happiness (VanDe Voorde, Paauwe, & Van Veldhoven, 2014).
Asa result, although studies on employee’s happiness are at itsinfant stage, scholars have identified essential the relationshipbetween happiness and employees’ performance. Studies also indicatethat happy employees are highly productive as compared to unhappyindividuals (VanDe Voorde, Paauwe, & Van Veldhoven, 2014).In most instances, internal and external factors have a notablecontribution in shaping employees’ happiness level. The existingrelationship between employees and employers also influenceemployees’ satisfaction levels.
Ideally,employers expect high performance from employees. Organizations alsoneed productive employees with the aim of advancing their income (VanDe Voorde, Paauwe, & Van Veldhoven, 2014).Therefore, companies have the mandate to use their managerial toolsto advance employees’ happiness level. Human resource practicessuch as face-to-face communication and compensation system have aninfluence on employees’ happiness levels and productivity. Studiesalso affirm that companies that have the ability to use theirresources to advance employees’ happiness levels have the capacityto attract and retain productive and experienced workforce (Boehm& Lyubomirsky, 2016).Therefore, based on the accessible data, there is close relationshipbetween life and job satisfaction. Consequently, happiness at workinvolves job satisfaction and individual productivity. Happiness atwork also includes subjective wellbeing. As a result, happiness atworkplace is essential for individual and the entire company’soperations. Scholars need to advance their studies to provideadequate information on effective means to advance happiness inworkplace. Additional information is also significant in facilitatingthe understanding of benefits of happiness among employees,organizations, and the entire society.
Theconceptual framework reveals essential aspects that define happinessamong employees, work activities, income, friendship, and employmentstatus (VanDe Voorde, Paauwe, & Van Veldhoven, 2014).
Employmentstatus is the job related situations that shape employees’psychological position. Studies indicate that employment statusdefine employees’ happiness and productivity. For instance, studiesindicate that full-time employees are relatively happy as compared topart-time workers (Boehm& Lyubomirsky, 2016).Employees also seek for employment for security reasons. Therefore,unemployed people are unhappy as compared to employed individuals(VanDe Voorde, Paauwe, & Van Veldhoven, 2014).
Studiesindicate that employees seek for jobs to acquire monetary rewards(Boehm,& Lyubomirsky, 2016).As a result, employees are interested in highly rewarding job ascompared to poorly paying undertakings. Studies also indicate thatthere is a close relationship between life satisfaction and persons’income (Boehm& Lyubomirsky, 2016).Individuals with better pay have high changes to purchase productsthat meet their internal needs. Employees also have the tendency ofcomparing their income with other workers. In most instances,employees prefer equality in the payment process. As a result,individuals who witness inequality in the payment are unhappy.Therefore, employers and companies’ leaders need to ensure thatthere is equality in the payment to boost employees’ morale andmotivation. Companies’ leaders also have the mandate to adoptreliable human resource practices to support employees’ happinesslevels (Boehm& Lyubomirsky, 2016).
Inmost instances, employees use behaviors and emotions to express theirfriendship. Friendship in work place involves individuals’relationship and interaction with superiors, peers, and subordinates.Friendship in workplace supports employees’ perception and attitudetowards employment. Recent studies have identified a close and mutualrelationship between happiness and interpersonal relations. Positiverelationship affects both employees’ productivity and employees’happiness. Teamwork in an organization also influences therelationship levels among employees. The mutual relationship inworkplace also influences the problem-solving process in anorganization (Zelenski,Murphy, & Jenkins, 2013).
Culturalvalues revolve around individual’s beliefs and self perception onvarious issues. Studies indicate that an individual’s culturehighly influences the emergence of appropriate virtues such asmotivation and happiness within the workplace (Escott & Buckner,2013). The available studies further indicate that a huge disparityexists between the Western and Eastern culture. Fr instance,individuals from the West prefer to work in an individualisticenvironment. The individuals from the West further prefer a workingenvironment that helps in the establishment and maintenance of anindividual’s autonomy. Therefore, managers should focus onformulating polices that focus on enhancing the Western employees’autonomy (Fereidouni, Najdi & Amiri, 2013). The formulation oftechniques such as employees’ recognition and forums for careeradvancement programs is also essential towards addressing theinterest of the employees from the Western parts of the globe(Alesina, Di Tella & MacCulloch, 2014).
However,individuals who embrace the Eastern culture belief that teamwork andharmony in the workplace are among the essential values that lead tothe creation of a favorable working environment. Therefore, managersshould continuously embrace suitable strategies that foster thecreation of a harmonious working environment (Dulk, Groeneveld,Ollier-Malaterre & Valcour, 2013). The managers should also focuson activities that enhance the establishment and maintenance ofteamwork among the employees. The favorable working environment willlead to a decline in the conflicts among the employees thus leadingto the emergence of happiness among the members of the workforce.
Inmost instances, work activities revolve around the employees’ jobdescription. Behavior and organizational psychologists reveal thatwork activities determine the level of happiness among the employees.For instance, a large portion of employees prefers challenging tasksthat help in enhancing their skills(Edmans, 2014).Besides, the employees prefer work activities that correlate withtheir skills. However, the issue of work related activities that lacka correlation with their skills lead a decline in the employees’morale and satisfaction.Thephenomenon further leads to a high rate of staffs’ turnover due tofactors such as dissatisfaction(Van De Voorde, Paauwe & Van Veldhoven, 2014).Therefore, organizational managers should consider formulatingpolicies that focus on providing an efficient work breakdownschedule. The strategy will lead to an increase in the employees’happiness this leading to an increase in productivity. The strategywill further lead to the creation of a constructive workingenvironment that helps in sustaining teamwork among the employees.
The Conceptual Framework
Theconceptual framework indicates that the study revolves around anindependent variables, moderating variables, and dependent variables.The study’s independent variables include the employment status,income, friendship, and work activities. The moderating variablesinclude the cultural values among the member of the workforce(Bakker & Oerlemans, 2015).The dependent variable is the workplace activities. The study revealsthat the variables interrelate during the determination of happinessand job satisfaction among the employees.
Essentially,a number of constructs and tenets from formidable theories help inproviding a formidable framework to the concept of happiness in theworkplace. The Self Determination, Human Needs, Social Comparison,and Social Exchange Theories are critical in explaining the concepton happiness in the workplace.
TheHuman Needs Theory
Themajor proponent of the theory is Abraham Maslow. Maslow reveals thatvarious factors influence individuals’ happiness within theworkplace. Maslow further reveals that each human being has fivedistinct needs. The needs revolve around crucial areas such asphysiologic, safety, love, belonging, and esteem. Therefore, themanagers within a workplace should formulate a reward system thathelps in addressing the existing needs among the employees. Forinstance, an efficient remuneration system helps in addressing theemployees’ safety and physiological needs. Besides, theestablishment of an operational and constructive working environmentis essential towards enhancing the employees’ esteem and socialneeds. Therefore, the formulation of proficient policies that help inaddressing the human needs is essentials towards enhancing theemployees’ happiness in the workplace. Elements such as theexistence of an appropriate fiscal and non-fiscal reward systems isessential towards enhancing employees’ satisfaction and happinessthus leading to an increase in productivity (Alesina, Di Tella &MacCulloch, R. (2014). The management’s ability to formulatenon-fiscal reward systems such as recognition and avenues for careerdevelopment is also critical towards sustaining the employees’happiness.
TheSelf Determination Theory
TheSelf Determination Theory also helps in explaining and expounding onhappiness among the employees in a particular workplace. The theory’sproponents Deci and Ryan indicate that the achievement of asatisfactory level of happiness within the workplace is among theessential concepts that help in enhancing performance andproductivity (Atkinson & Hall, 2016). The proponents furtherreveal that happiness is among the abstract factors that lead to theemergence of intrinsic motivation among the employees. The proponentsfurther recommend that organizational managers should focus onformulating and establishing a favorable working environment thathelps in addressing the happiness levels among the workforce.
Thetenets of the theory further indicate that factors such as autonomy,relatedness, and competence influence the development of intrinsicmotivation among the employees. Essentially, autonomy revolves aroundthe employees’ ability to make various choices. The proponents ofthe theory further indicate that a large portion of individualsprefers challenging tasks. The selection and issue of challengingtasks enhances the individuals’’ productivity thus leading to anorganization success (Dalal, Baysinger, Brummel & Lebreton,2015). Besides, autonomy among the employees leads to the generationof new ideas that help in enhancing a firm’s sustainability. Thetheory further indicates that the relatedness of tasks is essentialtowards sustaining the employees’ motivation. The aspect furtherleads to the establishment of high levels of happiness among themembers of the workforce. Besides, managers should administer thetasks that relate to the employees’ competence. The availableliterature also affirms that addressing the employees’ competenceis essential towards reducing the rate of dissatisfaction andturnover among the employees. Therefore, the formulation of policiesthat address the employees’ autonomy and competence is essentialtowards sustaining their happiness(Zelenski, Murphy & Jenkins, 2013).The formulation of related activities is also essential towardssustaining the intrinsic motivation among the employees.
Thetheory further reveals that the prevailing circumstances within thesocial environment helps in determining the development of happinessamong the employees. For instance, firms that have a high level ofpositive organizational culture help in reducing the emergingconflicts among the employees thus leading to the maintenance ofhappiness. Besides, factors such as the adoption of an appropriateleadership and management technique further helps in enhancing theexisting social environment thus leading to the development of theemployees’ happiness(Boehm & Lyubomirsky, 2016).The proponents further affirm that the establishment of employees’happiness is among the critical factors that help in maintaining thesustainability of a particular organization.
TheSocial Comparison Theory
TheSocial Comparison Theory also forms credible insights on thedevelopment and maintenance of employees’ happiness in a particularorganization. The proponents indicate that individuals frequentlycompare themselves to others. Factors such as achievement, success,workload, appraisal, remuneration, and promotion form a formidablereference point for the comparison among the employees. The availableliterature indicates that poor performance and achievement among theemployees can lead to the emergence of negative factors such asdismal performance (Cho, Thyroff, Rapert, Part & Lee, 2013).Besides, the existence of a high amount of workload among someemployees leads to resentment and conflicts within the workplace. Theemerging conflicts can lead to a massive decline in productivityamong the employees. The emerging conflicts further hinder thedevelopment of teamwork thus hindering the efficient utilization ofthe resources. The emerging conflicts further lead to a high rate ofturnover among the staff. Therefore, the management team within aparticular organization should focus on the creation of a fairworking environment.
TheSocial Exchange Theory
Thetheory helps in explaining the emergence of diverse behavior amongthe employees within the workplace. The proponents of the theoryindicate that behavior among the employees results for a diversearray of existing exchanges. The exchanges within the workplacerevolve around the employees and the supervisors. Essentially,positive exchanges lead to the formation of the appropriate behavior.Consequently, negative exchanges hinder the formulation of positivebehavior among the employees.
FurtherResearch on Employees’
Theavailable literature indicates that the workplace is witnessingdynamic changes and shifts in the workforce’s inclinations.Therefore, constant researches on the techniques that help inmaintain the employees’ happiness is essential towards sustainingan organization’s competitive edge (Cleavenger & Munyon, 2013). The researchers should further focus on the formulation ofrecommendations that help in enhancing the employees’ satisfaction.Besides, tenets from credible theories such as Maslow’s Hierarchyof Needs postulate that the formulation of a favorable workingenvironment is essential towards sustaining an organization’simpressive financial performance (Atkinson & Hall, 2016).
Theresearcher should also focus on the formulation of modern strategiesthat relate with the changes in the inclination among the employees.For instance, the researchers should recommend the adoption of theappropriate techniques that facilitate the formulation of suitablefiscal and non-fiscal reward system that correlate with the emergingmarket dynamics (Demir & Davidson, 2013). For instance, theremuneration programs should focus on addressing the emergingnegative macroeconomic factors such as inflation and currencyvolatility. The aspect affirms to the tenet from Maslow’s Hierarchyof Needs Theory that reveal that the formulation of a suitableremuneration program to help in sustaining the employees’physiological needs. The researchers should further focus onenhancing the manager’s knowledge that the establishment of afavorable constructive environment is essential towards enhancing theemployees’ happiness (Connell, Gough, McDonnell & Burgess,2014). Essentially, factors that enhance the employees’ happinesslead to an increase in productivity thus enhancing an organization’scompetitive edge.
Thestudy reveals that happiness among the employees is an essentialfactor that leads to an increase in productivity. Therefore, theappropriate stakeholders within an organization should focus onformulating suitable procedures that seek to address the social andesteem needs among the employees.
Forinstance, manager should consider the frequent formulation of asuitable remuneration program. The managers should consider theformulation of a wage system that encompasses the emerging negativemacro-environment factors such as inflation and currency volatilityrates. The formulation of rewards such as recognition, careeradvancement programs and involvement in critical decision makingprocesses is also essential towards enhancing the employees’satisfaction within the workplace.
Organizationalmanagers should also adhere to the constructs and tenets from diverseformidable theories such as the Self Determination. The tenetsindicate that the establishment of a favorable and constructiveworking environment is essential towards sustaining the employees’happiness. The tenets from the theories further indicate thatorganizational managers should critically evaluate the distinct needsamong the employees during the formulation of an appropriate rewardsystem. The aspect helps in the formulation of a suitable policy thathelps in sustain the employees’ happiness thus enhancing theirproductivity.
Theadoption of an appropriate leadership technique is also criticaltowards the establishment of a favorable working environment.Essentially, appropriate leadership is essential towards themaintenance of an organization’s culture. Organizationalpsychologists indicate that the adoption of an appropriate leadershipapproach further helps in the effective involvement of the employeestowards the formulation of critical decisions that help in improvingthe existing working conditions. The phenomenon further leads to thegathering of critical feedback from the employees. The feedback helpsin the formulation of suitable conditions that help in enhancing theemployees’ satisfaction.
Behaviorpsychologists further recommend that continuous needs assessmentexercises are essential towards the establishment of the emerginginclination among the employees (Dalal, Baysinger, Brummel, &Lebreton, 2015). The continuous needs assessment further helps in theestablishment of the factors that hinder the formulation of policiesthat address the emerging challenges that hinder the creation of afavorable working environment. The feedback from the assessmentfurther helps in the formulation of suitable policies that help inenhancing the creation of a favorable and operational workingenvironment.
Thestudy indicates that happiness among the employees is among theessential factors that lead to an increase in productivity. Besides,happiness among the employees leads to the maximum utilization of theavailable resources towards the achievement of the set goals.Therefore, organizational managers should continuously formulatepolicies that seek to enhance the employees’ happiness. The studyfurther indicates that various theories help in providing aformidable framework to the importance of establishing andmaintaining satisfaction among the employees. For instance, theconstructs from the Self Determination, Social Exchange, and MaslowHierarchy of Needs theories help in explaining the importance ofemployees’ happiness. Essentially, the tenets and guidingprinciples from the theories help in enhancing the managers’knowledge on the important of maintaining a constructive andoperational working environment.
Thestudy further indicates that fiscal and non-fiscal reward systemshelp in determining the level of happiness among the members of theworkforce. Therefore, organizational managers should focus on theformulation of an appropriate and comprehensive reward system thathelps in sustaining the employee’s happiness. The study afterindicates that organizational managers should focus on the adoptionof an appropriate leadership techniques that seek in enhancing themotivation among the employees. The leadership approach shouldfurther focus on enhancing the involvement of the employees in keydecision making processes. An organizations ability to formulatepolicies that focus on sustaining the employees’ happiness iscritical towards sustaining an organization’s productivity.
Alesina,A., Di Tella, R., & MacCulloch, R. (2014). Inequality andhappiness: Are Europeans and Americans different? Journal of PublicEconomics, 88, 2009-2042
Atkinson,C., & Hall, L. (2016). Flexible working and happiness in the NHS.Employee Relations, 33(2), 88-105
Bakker,A. B., & Oerlemans, W. (2015). Subjective well-being inorganizations. TheOxford handbook of positive organizational scholarship,178-189.
Boehm,J. K., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2016). Does happiness promote careersuccess?. Journalof career assessment,16(1),101-116.
Cho,Y., Thyroff, A., Rapert, M. I., Part, S., & Lee, H. J. (2013). Tobe or not to be green: Exploring individualism and collectivism asantecedents of environmental behavior. Journalof Business Research,66, 1052-1059.
Cleavenger,D. J., & Munyon, T. P. (2013). It’s how you frame it:Transformational leadership and the meaning of work. BusinessHorizons,56, 351-360.
Connell,J., Gough, R., McDonnell, A., & Burgess, J. (2014). Technology,work organisation and job quality in the service sector: Anintroduction. Labour and Industry,24(1), 1-8.
Dalal,R. S., Baysinger, M., Brummel, B. J., & Lebreton, J. M. (2015).The relative importance of employee engagement, other job attitudes,and trait affect as predictors of job performance. Journal of AppliedSocial Psychology, 42(S1), E295-E32
Demir,M., & Davidson, I. (2013). Toward a better understanding of therelationship between friendship and happiness: Perceived responses tocapitalization attempts, feelings of mattering, and satisfaction ofbasic psychological needs in same-sex best friendships as predictorsof happiness. Journalof Happiness Studies,14(2), 525-550.
Dulk,L. D., Groeneveld, S., Ollier-Malaterre, A., & Valcour, M.(2013). National context in work-life research: A multi-levelcross-national analysis of the adoption of workplace work-lifearrangements in Europe. EuropeanManagement Journal,31, 478-494.
Edmans,A. (2014). The link between job satisfaction and firm value, withimplications for corporate social responsibility. TheAcademy of Management Perspectives,26(4),1-19.
Escott,K., & Buckner, L. (2013). Improving employment and women’swell-being in regeneration programmes. InternationalJournal of Public Sector Management,26(3), 250-263.
Fereidouni,H. G., Najdi, Y., & Amiri, R. E. (2013). Do governance factorsmatter for happiness in the MENA region? InternationalJournal of Social Economics,40(12), 1028-1040.
VanDe Voorde, K., Paauwe, J., & Van Veldhoven, M. (2014). Employeewell‐beingand the HRM–organizational performance relationship: a review ofquantitative studies. InternationalJournal of Management Reviews,14(4),391-407.
Zelenski,J. M., Murphy, S. A., & Jenkins, D. A. (2013). Thehappy-productive worker thesis revisited. Journalof Happiness Studies,9(4),521-537.
No related posts.