Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer
HereditaryBreast and Ovarian Cancer
HereditaryBreast and Ovarian Cancer
Cancer is a condition, which results in alteration of the normal state of cells within the body (GeneDx, 2014).
The body cells grow improperly due to the disruption of normal cell growth resulting in overgrowth and improper cell structures (GeneDx, 2014).
The resulting effect is inhibition of the normal cells and the cancer cells spread rapidly invading other tissues (GeneDx, 2014).
Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) results from uncontrolled growth of the normal cells in the breast or significantly the ovary leading to the formation of a tumor (GeneDx, 2014). There is a high risk of an individual developing the condition if their close relatives suffered from it.
Although breast cancer occurs in women mostly, it occurs in men too at a low rate. Out of 8 women, one is diagnosed with breast cancer amounting to 12%.
In the United States according to CDC over 200,000 women contract breast cancer and 3% of these cases result from heredity BRCA1 and BRCA2 ("Cancer Family History," 2016).
Ovarian cancer, hereditary as well, out of 70 women one is diagnosed with the condition.
According to CDC in the United States, for example, 20,000 women contract the condition, and 10% of these new contractions result from heredity ("Cancer Family History," 2016).
It is essential that women get informed on hereditary breast and ovarian cancer to ensure control and reduction of mortality (GeneDx, 2014).
HBOC results from the gene linkage principle of heredity as a result of inheritance of the damaged genes (GeneDx, 2014). They are referred to as ‘germline’ since they are located in the sperm and ovum.
All people have two genes from both the father and mother when there is domination of mutation on one copy the result is a cancer condition on the child (GeneDx, 2014).
There is a 50% chance of transferring the condition to mostly the female child and also the male child (GeneDx, 2014).
The resulting effect on the family is conditioned to how close the relation is interleaved (GeneDx, 2014).
Mitotic and meiotic cell mutation on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the processes related to the improper mutation of cells (Frank, 2017).
Proteins within these genes together could result in suppression of the development of cancer (Frank, 2017).
These formation results in the suppression of tumor development explaining why not all individuals would contract HBOC (Frank, 2017).
Mutation of several genes results to the development of hereditary ovarian and breast cancer, mainly the BRCA1 and BRCA2 (Frank, 2017).
The relation between ovarian and breast cancer about the causatives, BRCA1 and BRCA2 is characterized by estrogen located in the Epithelial of tissues.
Contraction of these gene carriers could result in other cancers, like pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer in men (Frank, 2017).
The overall risk carried by BRCA1 is on 57-87% of the population of women to contract cancer.
BRCA2 carriers are at a 41-48% risk in their lifetime to contract the condition (GeneDx, 2014).
A relation to ovarian cancer risk is 24-54% risk in a woman’s lifetime (GeneDx, 2014).
Bioethical Issues and Conclusion
The Ashkenazi Jewish women are at a higher risk of acquiring the HBOC, and it is key for methodologies to be put in place to prepare them for testing psychologically.
Hereditary HBOC affects families, and it is important to ensure that the female carriers in relation to family development are prepared to face the risks of childbearing (GeneDx, 2014).
CancerFamily History.(2016). Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention.Retrieved 4 April 2017, fromhttps://www.cdc.gov/features/hereditarycancer/
Frank,T. (2017). HereditaryRisk of Breast and Ovarian Carcinoma: The Role of theOncologist. Theoncologist.alphamedpress.org.Retrieved 4 April 2017, fromhttp://theoncologist.alphamedpress.org/content/3/6/403.full
GeneDx,(2014). Breast and Ovarian Cancer.
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