Human Growth and Development
HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
HumanGrowth and Development
Human growthand development
Socialdevelopment is the process of learning to interact with others and toexpress oneself. Social and personality development is through socialinfluences and representations of self and the social world. Infantsdevelop their earliest relationships with their parents. Childrendevelop strong emotional connections with the people who take care ofthem. Babies form attachments to their parents and caregivers becausenot only do they provide care but also because these people motivatethem to stay as they provide learning, guidance, security, andaffirmation.
Socialdevelopment in infancy can be seen through how they respond. Anewborn baby responds to sound a one-month baby recognizes afamiliar face and stops crying when lifted. At three months, infantsneed for companionship and physical care increases. At four and fivemonths, the baby laughs when entertained and cries when left. Fromsix to twelve months the infant craves attention, they shy away fromstrangers, and they became socially active and emotionally sensitive.Although a significant number of newborns develop emotionalattachments to those who care for them, the sense of security variesdepending on the caregivers. When caregivers respond sensitively toinfants a sense of security and their confidence is reinforced, asthey know support will be provided when needed [CITATION Gro16 l 1033 ].If the caregivers are negligent or inconsistent, the infants becomeinsecure, their confidence in the caregiver decreases and they tendto avoid them.
Thetemperament qualities and environmental characteristics shape thepersonality of a child. Infants are too young to have self-controlbut as they grow their brain capacity develops, and theirself-regulation also improves. Infants’ temperaments are known bygauging how they react and respond to situations. Stimulation andsocial experiences provide children with the alignment to which theydevelop. According to Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development,a preschool child falls in the third stage of initiative versusguilt. Within such period, children become strategic by planning,carrying out tasks, and solving challenges. The preschoolers arecurious and learning enthusiasts who ask many questions. Wheneverthey succeed in an activity, they feel a sense of accomplishment,which helps them to take the initiative [CITATION Kyl08 l 1033 ]. In the case where a child extends beyond their capabilities, theymay fail, which leaves them with a sense of guilt and doubt.Ifcaregivers stifle a child’s initiation, efforts they end up feelingthat their efforts will bring embarrassment to them and may struggleto develop. At the preschool age, children understand wrong andright, and they develop the initiative and willingness to work withother kids.
In thepreschool, period the children become more social, and at this stage,they learn to cooperate and share with others. The children caninitiate and join the play and, they can follow game rules and sharetheir toys. Children at this age become imaginative and engage infantasy games, which enable them to act out scenes such as pretendingto be animals or mimic chores they see adults do for example groceryshopping. Toddlers show more independence compared to infants andbecome even tempered and can cooperate with their parents. Play giveschildren an opportunity to explore their interpersonal skills theylead and follow as they make up their games. During pre-school,children develop a moral self where they start seeing themselves tobe well behaved. Besides, toddlers want to do the right thing andavoid misbehaving, when they do, they feel sorry for it, and becomeuncomfortable if others misbehave around them. At this stage, themoral standards of a child are that of the parents or people who havea significant influence. The children adhere to ethical standards toavoid punishment or gain rewards [CITATION Ric09 l 1033 ].In this stage, the children conscience develops and they becomeemotionally and socially accomplished, which provides a base fortheir moral conduct in the future.
Physicaldevelopment in the preschool children is marked by slow growth rate,visual development, dentition changes, and skeletal growth. Thechildren appear thinner as their growth in height is greater than theincrease in weight. At the beginning of the preschool, children’steeth emerge, and at the end of the stage, they begin to be replacedby the permanent teeth. The most of the skeletal growth in thepreschool stage takes place in the legs and feet, which results in aslimmer and taller body.
At thepreschool stage, children attempt to understand, construct, organize,explain, and manipulate events of the world. Piaget referred thecognitive development between age two and seven, a preoperationalstage. At this point, children increasingly use language, imitateadult behaviors, and nurture imaginary friends. At this stage, thechildren have cognitive limitations, and they may experiencechallenges in controlling memory functions and focusing on a singleaspect. Piaget believed that these children do not have the abilityto classify, cannot group by logical progression and cannotcomprehend conversation. Weight and height change quickly during themiddle school making them a little clumsy and, they experienceirregular development in abilities such as agility. At this stage,the children reflect a broad range of individual differences somehave rapid height and weight development while others experience aslower growth rate. Girls within this period become taller and morephysically developed compared to boys. The sexual reproductive systemand a wide range of pubertal changes occur resulting in differencesin physical characteristics of middle school children.
According toPiaget, intellectual development in middle childhood is concrete andoperational. The children can classify, understand causality, haveinductive and deductive reasoning, and can work with numbers. Thechildren experience to advance in memory and information processing,their reaction time, concentration, and processing speed increases.At this stage, the children become less egocentric and become skilledin tasks that require logical thinking. Adolescence marks the end ofchildhood. Hormonal changes during adolescence trigger puberty, whichbegins earlier in girls than in boys. Adolescents experience notablephysiological changes in body composition, weight, and height. Thehead, hands, and feet are fast to grow followed by torso andshoulders. At this stage, reproductive organs enlarge and mature,secondary sex characteristics become visible. The girls experiencemenstruation while the boys begin to produce sperm.
According toPiaget, adolescents can employ hypothetical-deductive reasoning,solve problems flexibly, tests hypothesis, and can think based onpossibilities. Elkind claimed that immatureness in the adolescentstage is a result of inexperience with formal thinking. Theadolescents are also able to use the knowledge they have accumulatedover the years. Adolescents attain a higher level of self-awarenessas they have the ability to reason, and able to criticize themselves,their parents, their peers, and others in their environment.Adolescents try out different selves until they form a comfortableidentity. After attaining the new independence, they still relate totheir parents and family, religion, career, and culture.
Gross, R., & McIlveen, R. (2016). Social psychology. London New York: Routledge.
Kyle, T. (2008). Essentials of pediatric nursing. Orlando, Florida: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Ricci, S. S. (2009). Maternity and pediatric nursing. Orlando, Florida: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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