Information System 1
Informationsystems have evolved over the years to become a crucial element inthe operations of most organizations. Through the aid of informationsystem, governments are able to manage the collection of taxes, bankscan process payments and hospitals can manage patient’s data. Thereare several other applications of information system across diversefields such as finance, education, manufacturing, and business.Information system facilitates communication, data management as wellas decision making. The fast advancement of technology has led to thecontinuous reshaping Information system used in the businessenvironment (Laudonand Laudon 2014). The business information system used presently maynot be applicable in the future due to the dynamics of technology.This implies that the current or past performance of a businesscannot determine its future performance hence the success of businessat the moment does not guarantee future success. Business needs tointegrate real-timemonitoring of performance and predictive analytics which offer fasterand accurate analysis (Laudonand Laudon 2014).
Database,Big Data, and Business Intelligence
Withthe emergence of the next-generation information system, a lot ofinformation can be loaded into the database, besides, very short timeis taken to perform queries,and this is different from the conventional tools which aretime-consuming. However, the fact that the nextgeneration of Business Intelligence technology isin the process of evolving it is associated with many risks, andtherefore, it should be handled with caution since it requiresexpertisethat is scarce and expensive. Business Intelligence has been used invarious fields organizations use it to screen potential customers,finance organizations and banks use it to lend money to theircustomers. The Integration of BI environment with analytics iscrucial in enhancing its effectiveness, for instance, the integrationof RStat and WebFocus has eliminated the need to hire statisticianwhich is more expensive and are in shortage. The cost ofpredictive analysishas further been reduced by the fact that they have pre-builtapplications speciallydesigned according to the needs of a given industry. Organizationswill start developing their own analyticsexpertise with time through conducting in-house training for powerusers and BI experts.
Realtime analysis and monitoring of ‘Big data’ is characterized bythe quick response and is facilitated by techniquessuch as the trickle feedingand is part of Low-latencyBusiness Intelligence, which also incorporates Stream processingtechnologies that have a feature of giving instant alerts. Thisallows people react fast when they observe a certain threshold,pattern or event, besides they offer complex processing.Organizations should link low-latency with an automated response tomake it more effective. The alerting features are of great valuesince it eliminates the need of watching an interface to discover aproblem. The technology of Complex event processing has further madeit easy to conduct real-time monitoring. Business initiative’scommitment to the use of Informationsystemsmakes it easier and faster to do analysis through the use ofinformationsystem calculations which use In-memory tools capable of slicing anddicing large set of data without the need for summarizing it first.Information system products have of late become more appealing to thecustomers due to their efficiency and speed(Laudonand Laudon 2014).
Roleof Information systems in decision making
Theinformation system has transformed over time by broadening itsspectrum to meet the changing needs of the user. It was initiallyused to manage the daily operation of the organization. However, itcan currently be used as a decision-making tool for the managers(Laudonand Laudon 2014). It is very useful in making decisions on issuesthat affect the organization and can be used to eliminate theuncertainties that are inherent in the decision-making process.Information system also helps in finding a solution to the complexbusiness problem. This is illustrated in the figure below
Organizationshave treasured information, and no company is too big to besusceptible to a data breach. A data breach carries financial andreputational risk, and, therefore, the business body must be ready torespond with immediate effect so that to protect the company. Manycompanies consider data security as an additional thought. Companiesare aware of data risks, but you realize that many are not disturbeddue to their scope. However, if an establishment has workers, theyhold information that is at risk. It is important to keep in mindthat occurrences do not always include malware and strangers staffsapply low-technical methods to access information. Data breaches canbe categorized into three different stages: that is, pre-breach,breach and post-breach. Each stage has key processes together withthe concerns. It is important to understanding what these phasesinvolve and apply a comprehensive plan which can protect yourorganization (Laudon and Laudon 2014).
Organizationscan implement a variety of risk evaluation models to assist inestablishing a possible violation to the database security. Also, itis important to view the security of the database in the criminal`sperspective. This achieved by observing the system vulnerabilitiesand determining how tough it can be to access and allocate the data.Organizations should work with reliable advisors when creating thedata breach strategy, and it should involve law firms, privacyservices, security and cyber insurance carriers (Laudon and Laudon2014). Ensure you partner with consultants that have associationswith governing bodies and have an understanding of stringent rulesand guidelines. This helps in ensuring that the strategy iscomprehensive and protected, and again it minimizes the risk. Everycompany must take precautions because the issue of the breach is withus and, therefore, prior plans on how to deal with it is essentialboth for big and small companies.
AppleInc. Case Analysis
AppleInc. is one of the leading technology companies that have embracedinformation system and effectively implemented it in theiroperations. The company is has been successful in making decisions onissues that affect their production activities as well as thoseconcerning the marketing of the product. Apple incorporation usesfour main steps to manage the information systems that they use. Thefirst step involves initiating and this the stage at which a newsystem is adopted. Apple involves initiation team to coordinate thewhole process of project implementation. The team consists of expertsin the field of technology and risk management. This ensures thatthere a smooth transition from the old system to the new system thatthe company is adopting. This stage also involves the implementationof measures that will enhance customer relation. The second step isthe planning of the project. At this stage of the adoption of aninformation system, the company slips the overall project intomanageable units and then allocate a budget as well as work teams toeach unit. The division of the entire project into small portionenable the company to identify the milestones that they have made inthe course of project implementation. The third step is the executionof the project this stage involves preparation of execution planthat is used to guide the team of technicians in performing theirduties. The baseline plans are created and the performance of theteam measured against the baseline plan, Apple Inc. maintains aworkbook which is used for reference purpose as well as relayinginformation to about the project to the stakeholders. The last stepis known as project conclusion, here the segments of the project arecompleted, and the company takes stock to determine that all therequirements are met based on the specifications that were stated atthe beginning of the project. Post project evaluation is done, andthe project is officially closed to pave the way for new ones.During the whole process of adoption of the information system(Gupta and Prinzinger 2013).
Themanagement of Apple Inc. uses information system in making odecisions, on various issues that affect its business operations. Thecompany is able to collect, decode and store and relay information tothe right audience. The company uses the information about the marketthat they gather with the help of information systems as a strategictool to gain core competencies that will enable them to increasetheir market share.
AppleCompany ensures that its database is well secured through theadoption of the right strategies. They have access controlsthat define which operators will be able to access the system thedata sets that an authorized for the access by the user may read orwrite. The second one flows controls which control the disseminationof standards between the data sets available to an operator.Inference controls, on the other hand, protect statistical databasesby avoiding manipulation of personal information through the use ofcautiously designed orders of statistical questions and then linkingthe responses. Lastly is the data encryption which tries to preventunapproved disclosure of personal information in storage (Gupta andPrinzinger 2013).
AppleInc. through its Information Systems team manages the crucialinfrastructure that the company owns. The technical personnel of theteam ensures that the design of their products is not imitable andare protected by the patents and copyrights, this ensures that theymaintain their competitive advantage over the rival companies. On theother hand, the business personnel are tasked with managing theonline transactions, determines the type of network that the companyneeds to join to increase their revenue base. All these is madepossible through the use of business intelligence.
Appleuses software for project management, operations such as changemanagement, planning, and scheduling of the project as well as budgetallocation is done seamlessly through the use of the software. Thecompany`s project managers and the stakeholders have control over theprocess of budget allocation and quality of the project. Besides,communication between the employee and the management of the companyhas been made easy through the use of the software (Gupta andPrinzinger 2013).
Theprocess in which Apple Inc. identifies projects on Informationsystems involves the determination of the viable projects and thenranking then based on the predetermined impact that they are expectedto have on the organization, this is then followed by the selectionof the right project to undertake. The projects that the copy engagesin are supposed to add value to the customers, and this is achievedthrough the use value chain analysis tools.
Figure 1: Value chain model
Theinformation system has numerous benefits that can help improve theperformance of every organization. Apple Inc. case has shown howmanagers can use strategic management tools and business intelligenceto enhance its business operations. The adoption of informationsystem requires the organization to create a database that will beused to store information. Web-based infrastructures of theorganization are susceptible to attack therefore it is important forevery company to protect their data through proper database security.Data security ensures that the information remains confidential andthat only the authorized people have access the information stored inboth paper and electronic form. An organization achieves this bymaking sure that individuals with no connection to the business aredenied access institutional data and resources. Again, it alsoensures that individuals within the organization can only accessinformation related to their departments.
Thereare several types of information systems that can be used in abusiness setup, and companies can implement any of them based ontheir needs. For instance, the transaction system is used to recordthe financial activities that take place in business on a dailybasis. Office system is used to automate office operations whilesystems for process control are used to manage the activities of theorganization. The system that facilitate decision making is anessential element of the information system. They are designed basedon the concept of human intelligence and machine learning whichenable them to think like the actual person based on their analysisof the variables that are fed into the system. This promotes fasterand accurate decision-making process.
Inconclusion, the advancement of technology has resulted in the changein the information system, the roles that it currently plays inorganizations and business are totally different from the ones thatthey had at the time of their inception. Many people today have moreaccess to the internet and the computing devices thus most of theemployees working in technology companies such as Apple are fullyaware of the significance of information systems to business, andthey use it on a daily basis to perform their duties at work.Management of companies needs to have control over thedecision-making process, especially when making a decision on issuesthat affect their business operations (Laudonand Laudon 2014). Some companies base their decisions on theactivities of their competitors or the change the trend of themarket. This is not appropriate and may mislead the organization.Information systems eliminate the mistakes that occur during theprocess of decision making. Apple company strive to do things in adifferent manner as stipulated in company`s slogan ‘Think different`without complying their competitors, this is because the topmanagement of company consists of people who are open minded andwelcome idea from every stakeholder of the company.
Gupta, A.,& Prinzinger, J. (2013). Apple, Inc.: Where Is It Going FromHere? Journal of Business Case Studies (JBCS), 9(3),215. doi:10.19030/jbcs.v9i3.7797
Laudon,K. C., and Laudon, J. P. (2014). Essentials of Business InformationSystems (14th Ed.). Prentice-Hall: New Jersey.
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