Institution Affiliation Part 1
Diseaseswith Epidemic and Pandemic Potential
Accordingto the World Health Organization (2014), about 40 infectious diseaseshave been discovered since the 1970s, including Ebola, Swine flu,Zika, and SARS. During the outbreak of epidemic infections, differenttypes of quarantine and isolation measures are used by health careauthorities to control transmission of the diseases. Foremost,isolation is used for individuals who pose a high risk oftransmission people who meet the criteria used by healthprofessionals for probable epidemic infections. All individuals whoare infected should be isolated in health facilities. Equally,individuals in quarantine as suspects of any epidemic cases should beplaced in isolation when their symptoms meet the criteria forprobable infection case.
Thequarantine of contact cases should be a concern to healthprofessionals. When health care workers have had either an exposureto infected patients or an environment where the epidemic has beentransmitted they should continue working within the health facilitywhere they are exposed as long as they remain in good health and withprotective tools. The health care providers who are not subjected towork quarantine are expected to follow quarantine rules when they arenot on duty. Individuals who are not health care professionals buthave been exposed within a health care facility should also besubjected to quarantine. Similarly, quarantines should be imposed onother sites where people who do not offer health services but knownto have been in proximity to and had inadequate protections frompossible exposure to infection cases thus they should remain inquarantine for a period of 10 days or more.
Inconditions where individuals’ proximity to probable infection casesis less positive, fewer quarantine methods are used there should beclosing schools, workplaces, child care facilities, businesslocations. Equally, public events should be suspended. On the otherhand, individuals who have been exposed to the epidemic infection orhave been in areas where the diseases have been transmitted withoutproper protection should be restricted on traveling from one regionto another.
Anelaborate system of medical inspection and dentition should beimplemented such that all incoming ships, cargo and airlinepassengers should be inspected. In cases individuals are diagnosedwith a disease, they should be admitted to an isolated healthcarefacility that is located at a quarantine station with equipped nursesand physicians. The detention period of inspected persons is usuallydetermined by the disease at issue, the incubation period of theparticular disease and the degree of infectiousness. Similarly,physicians, inspectors, and specials police force should be grantedthe authority to inspect individuals within a given region who arereported to be sick and move them to the quarantine station(McCloskey, Brian., Dar, Zumla, & Heymann, 2014).
Additionally,other quarantine and isolation methods should be used in response toepidemic infections. For instance, inconsistent control measuresshould be developed like having mass graves for individuals who diefrom a particular infection, the beddings that were used by infectedpersons should be dumped in case he or she dies and the burialprocess should be done by health care professions of the quarantinestations. All these are done to prevent further transmission of theinfectious disease.
Quarantineand isolation control measures are triggered by public healthprofessions in response to an epidemic disease. Typically, theordering of quarantine for an epidemic initiates the whole publichealth measures and control. For instance, contact tracing in animportant part of the strategy that needs a qualified staff ofepidemiologists, nurses, and other health professionals. Quarantineorders are to be used public health workers and laws should beenforced in the regions where there is an outbreak of an epidemic.Workers who are known to work at night should be called to work atnight and electronic cameras are to be used to verify whether peopleare at home and individuals in quarantine are advised to take theirtemperatures on camera (Sorvillo& Frank, 2014).
McCloskey,Brian., Dar, O., Zumla, A., & Heymann, D. L. (2014). Emerginginfectious diseases and pandemic potential: status quo and reducingrisk of global spread. The Lancet infectious diseases.
Sorvillo& Frank J. (2014). Emerginginfections: a guide to diseases, causative agents, and surveillance.Emerging infectious diseases,20(10), 1782. Retrieved fromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4193188/
WorldHealth Organization. (2014). Infection prevention and control ofepidemic-and pandemic-prone acute respiratory infections in healthcare: WHO Guidelines. World Health Organization.
Developingcontagious infections have lately appeared within humans and theirgeographic range is increasing rapidly and threatens human health.Therefore, the development of vaccines and antimicrobial drugs hascontinuously resulted to the re-emergence of epidemic infections. Dueto the continuous evolution of potential microorganisms are able toadept and develop resistance to most of the antimicrobial drugs thatcomplicating attempts to come up with effective vaccines.
Theantimicrobial drugs on the microorganisms mutate in a way that theantibiotic no longer kill the virus. Equally, the pathogens haveevolved enzymes that denature the antibiotic before it can reach itstarget inside the bacterium or thy resist back before it can damagethe virus. These genes for resistance are transferred among differentbacterial and viral species that spread all along the population theyoccupy (Morens, 2013).
Forinstance, Neisseriagonorrheais a sexually transmitted pathogen that has progressively developedresistance to the antimicrobial drugs recommended for treatment. Theoveruse of penicillin contributed to the developing of highresistance where the penicillinase-mediated resistance in thisbacterium are facilitated by plasmid borne TEM-1 type beta-lactamasewhich is categorized as the common process for beta-lactam resistancethus rendering the antibiotic to be less effective. This resistancestrain is commonly found in populations thus the infection can betransmitted from an infected individual to an uninfected person wherethe initial untreated individual develops a new case of theinfection.
ThisNeisseriagonorrheabacterium has a genetic or natural defense against the antimicrobialdrugs. For instance, it has shown resistance in Aminoglycosides typesof antibiotics. This antibiotic binds to the 16s of the RNAsubsections of the bacterial ribosome hence stopping transcription ofthe bacterial genome. On the other hand, an increasing body ofevidence indicates that some azithromycin is becoming less efficientand should be used as a minor medication to the treatment ofgonorrhea (Papp & Nash, 2017).
Insome developing nations, the gonorrhea treatment is more limited,costly and the appropriate medications are not always available andpatients experiences many adverse effects from the drugs and in someinstances more severe drug-resistant tuberculosis can re-emerge.Therefore, improved treatment outcomes for infections can be achievedby rapid diagnosis tests and shorter and cheaper routines. Likewise,it is recommended that patients should complete treatment and getappropriate antibiotic prescriptions from physicians (World HealthOrganization. (2014).
Inconclusion, emerging communicable infections prevalence has gone upin the previous decade and could possibly rise in the near future asthey account for at least 20% of all human pathogens. On the otherhand, there is a possibility of the bacterial infections re-emergingas a result of the deliberate resistance. Equally, during theoutbreak of epidemic infections, various types of quarantine andisolation approaches are used by health care authorities andindividuals to prevent the spread of these diseases.
PappJR, Abrams A, Nash E (2017). AzithromycinResistance and Decreased Ceftriaxone Susceptibility in Neisseriagonorrhoeae, Hawaii,USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 23(5):830-832.doi:10.3201/eid2305.170088. Retrieved from https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/
WorldHealth Organization. (2014). Antimicrobial resistance: 2014 globalreport on surveillance. World Health Organization. Retrieved fromhttps://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20143239232
Morens,David M., & Fauci, A. S. (2013). Emerging infectious diseases:threats to human health and global stability. PLoS Pathog, 9(7),e1003467. Retrieved fromjournals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1003467
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