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A Research Proposal on the Smoking of Pregnant Woman and theAccompanied Effect on the Child’s Weight after Birth.
Listof ContentTable of Contents
List of Content 2
Chapter 1 4
1.1. Introduction 4
1.2. Literature 5
1.3. Significance of the study 13
1.4. Aim of the study 14
1.5. Objective 14
1.6. Research questions 14
1.7. Hypotheses 14
Chapter 2 15
2.1. Design 15
2.2. Setting 15
2.3. Target Population 16
2.4 Data collection 16
2.5. Data analysis 16
2.6. Ethical considerations 17
2.7. Pilot study 17
2.8. Robustness of data collection 17
2.8.1. Qualitative 18
2.8.2. Quantitative 18
2.9. Procedure for the main study 19
Chapter 3 19
3.1 Expected outcome 19
3.2 Resources budget 20
3.3 Timescale 20
Works Cited 21
Informational Leaflet 29
Consent Form 31
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor Prof.Sukainah Alkhalaf for thecontinuous support, motivation, and immense knowledge.
Different types of substances can pose severe and potentiallyharmful impacts on a fetus development. Worldwide, a vast majority ofbabies are born with congenital disabilitiesannually, and a significant percentage ofsuch cases are tied to environmental toxinsinflicted unknowingly and or by neglectful habits of the mother(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1). Throughout the timeof gestation, which starts from the time of conception and ends atthe birth of the child, any harmfulcompounds ingested or inhaled by the mother can gradually penetratethe placenta and cause harm to the unborn child (Knopik et al.1380). Women who consume illegal or legal substances such as tobaccoin the pregnancy period are highly susceptible to various pregnancycomplications such as premature or delayed labor which might havedetrimental effects on the baby (Tang et al.10420). Such women can also encounter stillbirthsor miscarriages. Moreover, the higher the intensity and extentof substance usage the more likely the adverse effects would occur(Azab, et al. 234). Cigarette smoke is made up of numerous compoundssuch as carbon monoxide, nicotine, hydrogen cyanide, and elementssuch as lead and nickel (Baumung et al. 1).Nicotine and carbon monoxide are considered the primary compoundsthat result in dangerous effects on the developing fetus, andcampaigns against smoking during pregnancy have constantlybeen made to ensure the well-beingof both the unborn child and the mother (Watanabe & Fukuoka 2).
Despite many years that researchers haveconducted studies, varied results have beenestablished concerning smoking and babies’ weights. Somestudies have shown that mothers who smoke make their childrensusceptible to becoming obese later in life. However other studiesconclude that the combination of a baby’s less weight at the timeof birth and future overweight is as a result of epidemiologictransitions. Therefore, the magnitude of the linkage between prenatalsmoking and obesity during childhood is not well defined and leavesgaps that require further investigations. The aim of this research,therefore, is to access smoking of pregnant woman and theaccompanying effect on the weight of thechild after birth.
Both theoretical and empirical literaturedone by other researchers extensively addresses matters regarding thetopic. Smoking in the pregnancy period not only has detrimentalimpacts on the mother’s health, but thehabit also causes adverse health effects on the unborn baby as wellas aftermath health problems on the kid (Ekblad, 6). Women who arefound to continue consuming tobacco throughout their pregnancy periodare mostly those of lower age, low educational standards, poorsocioeconomic status, and low occupationalstatus. Pregnant women who smoke are most oftencriticized by the society which makesthem feel guilty and develop a personalconflict of not quitting the habit. The absenceof positive, sustainable long-term outcomesfrom campaigns that discourage smoking is as a consequence ofignorance within the socio-economically underprivileged circumstancesthat surround women’s lives (Golechha, 7). Most interventionsnormally do not consider the psychological and emotional stressorslinked to pregnancy, as the fail to address the transformedphysiological processes that take place during pregnancy (Lacko, 2).However, detrimental effects of pregnancy smoking continue tomanifest in the health issues of the children who are born fromsmoking mothers (Mollar et al. 3). Obesityand other weight related issues are commonlyobserved in kids who are exposed totobacco smoke during their fetal development stages (Harris et al.9).
According to Li et al. (206), the condition of overweight inchildhood is caused by exposure to prenatal smoking. Regardless ofbody size, socio-demographic factors, weight gain during pregnancy,feeding habits of the infant, and the general behaviors of a kid, thehabit of smoking in pregnant women contributes to increased abnormalweight gain in offsprings. Besides, kidsexposed to smoking mothers experience greater weight gains from thetime of birth up to the age of two yearsand sometimes escalate up to early stages of puberty (Dharashivkar etal. 2). The situation poses a greatdanger to children as it may cause a child to developdiabetes as well as cause increased blood pressure (Shrestha,3). The prenatal period, however, is considered a critical stage forlater healthiness outcomes (Noonan et al. 190). In most cases, birthweight has been considered an indicator of intrauterine nourishment.The fact of maternal smoking pinpoints the significance of outliningmore sophisticated actions such as analyzing body considerationinstead of focusing only on birth weight in determining prenatalimpacts on aftermath size.
Also, maternal smoking leads to poor fetal growth but a more promptpostnatal weight gain despite the fact that fetal growth and weightgain during childhood are linked directlyto the later life weight (Kurt et al. 3). Additionally, infants bornto smoking mothers tend to have more weight aboutthe length and more body fat thanbabies born to non-smoking mothers (Meghea et al. 153). Furthermore,nicotine and carbon monoxide compounds areidentified as primary substances contained in the cigarettesmoke that has the most dangerous impactson the unborn child (Ardat et al. 186). The compounds penetrate theplacenta and enter into the fetal amniotic fluid, circulation system,and breast milk. The level of nicotine in the circulation system ofthe fetus goes up to 15% more than that in the circulation system ofthe mother, while nicotine in the amniotic fluid goes up to 88% morethe one found in the mother’s plasma (Anblagan et al. 4). Nicotinecan cause vasoconstriction of the placental vasculature causing theplacenta to become poorly perforated which results in a reductionof oxygen and nutrient flow to the fetus. Also, nicotine can resultin the detrimental appetite of the mothercausing poor nutrition and low energy levels, causing a significantdecline of the fetus’ energy and nutrients (Manzano et al. 1).Furthermore, nicotine causes cellular growth alterations andvariations in peripheral and central nervous systems development.Carbon monoxide, on the other hand, causesdepletion of oxygen supply to the fetus as it combines withhemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin (Consumer health Digest, 1). Allthese factors combined causes poor fetus development resulting inseverely underweight newborns.
According to Banderali et al. (327), prenatal exposure to tobaccosmoke play significant roles in the enlarged cases of metabolicdisorders and obesity. A meta-analysis studies conducted on a groupof children revealed that kids whom their mothers smoked whilepregnant had an elevated risk of becoming obese at an average age of9 years compared to those of non-smokers. Also, another meta-analysishighlighted that the kids whom their mothers smoked while pregnantexperienced a 50% elevated danger of becoming obese later in lifethan those whose mothers did not consume tobacco (Banderali et al.327). The findings of an Australian prospective birth Cohort Studyreported that the average body mass index and overweightpredominance in adolescents whose mothers smoked beforeor later but not in the gestation period matched the results of thosewhose mothers never consumed tobacco. The outcomes conclude aconfirmation of undeviating maternal tobacco smoking duringthe gestation period and the aftermathobesity in kids.
According to the study conducted by Mund et al. (6490). Cigarettesmoking at the time of pregnancy is found to have negative impacts onthe mother’s as well as the fetus’ cellular and geneticcomposition. As a result, septal heart conditions of the fetus occurswhich directly correlate with the number ofcigarettes consumed cigarettes during gestation. Besides,prenatal tobacco consumption has been linkedto fetal kidney development defects which cause kidney diseases andhypertension in the child’s later life. Moreover, smoking andpregnancy correlate directly withrespiratory infections and pulmonary defects in the later life of theoffspring (Mamun et al. 1). Additionally, gastrointestinal defects insmokers’ offspring have been found tooccur as a result of prenatal smoking. The phenomena thereforecumulatively result in weight issues in the offsprings,the factors may lead to underweight growing kids or obesity dependingon nature and severity of the complicationsdeveloped (Riedel et al. 1601).
Second-hand smoke caused passive smokinghas been found to cause low birth weights of off springs that greatlycontribute to health complications and infant mortality (Miyake etal. 2). Non-smoking pregnant ladies that aresubjected to secondhand tobacco smoke tend to deliver babiesthat have a reduced average birth weight of more than 200g.Furthermore, the kids of passive smokers have been found toexperience abnormal weight gain during their childhood years (Qiu etal. 98). Besides, exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke increasesadolescents’ possibility of acquiring metabolic syndrome (Behl etal. 170). Metabolic syndrome is a health condition that results fromexcessive belly fat which results in obesity (Seal et al.695).The effects of maternal tobacco consumption on low birth weight arecaused by retardations that take place during intrauterinegrowth and the likelihood of shortened gestation period (Norsaadah &Salinah 46). The intrauterine growth retardation is caused by thechronic deprivation of oxygen in the fetusfrom being exposed to carbon monoxide, and nutritional deficiencycaused by nicotine. The low birth weight effect appears to be moreprevalent in older mothers and women who possesscertain genotypes associated with enzymesthat metabolize drugs. However, some research indicatesthat the hazard of low birth weight increases with somecigarettes consumed in a day. Besides, low birth weight possibilityreduces with the decline in the level of exposure to tobacco smoke.Mothers who quit tobacco consumption at early pregnancy stagesdeliver babies that have similar birth weights with those ofnon-smoking mothers (Ford et al. 1).
The correlation between childhood obesity and maternal pregnancysmoking tends to appear surprising concerning the long-known linkageof maternal pregnancy smoking and low birth weights. Evidence thattends to explain the phenomena is associatedwith the catch-up growth during the first years of childhood life(Gravel et al. 5). The evidence reveals that kids experiencingcatch-up growth tend to have significantly high body mass index,large waist circumference, and skinfold thickness within their firstfive years (Fitzpatrick et al. 3). Inthe first year, catch-up growth appears to occur rapidly in childrenwhose mothers smoked while pregnant. A quick weight gain and overallobesity are thus associated with the habitof smoking of the mother during pregnancy (Bolat et al. 999).
Smoking causes the mother’s adipose tissues to becomeproliferated, and as insulin resistance commences in the mid stage ofpregnancy, more glucose is channeled to the placenta to support thedevelopment of the fetus. The scenario, however,may subject the unborn baby to experience elevated insulin levels andhigh blood glucose (Hu et al. 1). As a result, more body fat mayoccur after the baby is delivered leading to higher body mass indexcontributing to obesity (Gupta et al. 1091). Furthermore, maternalsmoking at the period of pregnancy exposes the fetus to someadverse intra-uterine fetal development conditions (Ko et al. 22).Such conditions may include adaptations that may appear to be ofbenefit for only a short time, but later on,in postnatal life advance into harmful conditions. For instance, thefetus can develop small kidneys with few number of nephrons thatresult in glomerular hyperfiltration andsclerosis. After the child is born, the conditions predispose thechild to renal damage, impaired kidney functions, and kidney diseasesin the life of the child causing weight issues. Studies have shownthat associations exist among pregnancysmoking, low birth weights, chronic renal failure, card vasculardiseases, and obesity in later life (Yang, et al. 1).
Maternal smoking at the time of pregnancy has been linked to adiverse range of adverse outcomes in babies (Schultze et al. 838).Despite a variety of evidence obtained frompopulations of diverse geographical locations, direct connectionsbetween maternal tobacco consumption at gestation period and lowbirth weights of infants have not been justified.Justifications suggest the confirmation thatmaternal tobacco consumption during pregnancy might have hostileconsequences on the weight of the offspring from variousstudies regarding effects of maternal tobacco consumption oncognitive development associated with IQ deficits (Cui et al. 84). Itcould be debated that maternal cigaretteusage at gestation period is casually relatedto low birth weight via its adverse impacts on cognitive development.However, the low birth weight-cognitive development linkage might notbe affiliated to tobacco consumption at pregnancy period, given thatmaternal cigarette smoking during gestation is only one among othermany factors that influence low birth weight. Empirical studiesdemonstrate varied findings. Some studies show that low birth weightof the infants is not as a result of maternal pregnancy smoking whileother studies report associations between low birth weight andpregnancy tobacco consumption.
Maternal cigarette smoking at gestation period has been widelysuggested to be one of the primarilyavoidable factors that can harm the fetus environment (Terada et al.2). Studies conducted among varied ethnic populations haveconsistently deduced that diminished birth weight and prevalence toless than normal birth weights of newbornbabies are associated withmaternal smoking of cigarettes during pregnancy. Furthermore,maternal age is deduced to be linked tobirth weight (Silles, 11). Studies have reported that both older andyounger mothers are most likely to deliver babies that have low birthweight (Zheng et al. 5). Besides, a sequence of physiological shiftsmay take place in older mothers and may result to their fetusesbecoming more susceptible to unfavorable conditions leading to lowbirth weight of the infant. It is thus plausible that mothers of oldage, who already exist in the danger of giving birth to babies thathave low birth weight, experience higher exposures to the effects ofconsuming tobacco during the gestationperiod. However, concerning the consequences of prenatal smoking oninfants’ birth weight, a small number of studies have determinedthe vulnerability of pregnant women regarding varied age. Most of thestudies, however, were conducted among samples in the Westerncountries. The population appears to be a little bit differentregarding lifestyle habits, body mass index, cultural practices, andprevalence of tobacco consumption as compared to the populations ofWestern countries. Also, there might exist secular changes cuttingthrough varying time periods. Additionally,parity is another identifiable factor that has associations withmaternal age and birth weight of newbornbabies.
In a study conducted in Japan, the associationbetween prenatal tobacco consumption and risk of low birth weight inwomen from various age groups was established.The percentage of infants with low birth weight born to teenage womenwas found to be greater than that of women aged between twenty totwenty-nine years. However, the ratio ofbabies to low birth weight in mothers whosmoked while pregnant was found to be the same for both teenage andolder age women. The results concluded that teenage mothers whoconsume tobacco do not have high risks ofgiving birth to babies that have low birth weight than the olderwomen. Although many studies have explained the relationship betweenprenatal smoking and adverse birth results, a handful hasdiscussed the modifying consequences of other uncomplimentary aspects(Balte et al. 20).
Furthermore, the frequency of smoking and number of cigarettessmoked by pregnant women still raises concerns about the impacts theyhave on the weight of infants. According to Ash Organization (2),most women smoke in twelve months during or before their pregnancy.More than half of the women who consume tobacco before pregnancymanage to quit once they start the gestation period, while otherscontinue to smoke throughout the entire gestation period. However,the findings are based on self-reporting and are thus most likely tobe inaccurate. The smoking rates among pregnant women vary dependingon socio-economic, behavioral factors, andbeliefs surrounding the individuals (Mojibyan et al. 151). Accordingto Callinan (282), the general rate of maternal smoking in a studyconducted in Finland was found to be 16%. The majority of the motherswho were found smoking while pregnant were smoking in their earlypregnancy phase. Within the societal levels, variations in individualbehaviors, historical ideas, and regulations concerning tobacco useopen doors to various theoretical opinionsthat influence the rate of smoking in pregnant women. In thecontemporary capitalist setups, a pregnant lady is most likelyfavored for interventions since the lady is viewedas a carrier of the future humanity. Many societies, therefore,attempt to reduce cases of infant mortality and detrimental effectsthat tobacco consumption causes to the unborn kids as well as thepregnant mother. Prenatal smoking rates,therefore, vary depending on thegeneral surroundings of the mother (Moylan et al. 6). Furthermore,studies have justified that smoking rates during the late stage ofgestation period are mainly lower as compared to early and middlestages.
Traditionally, the fetus is thought to bestrategically situated in the placenta where it kept safe fromdangerous environmental exposures. However, regardless of otherfactors such as alcohol consumption, maternal diet, and psychologicalstressors, maternal smoking has been proven to cause harmful effectsto the fetus growth and general well-being.The effects might be carried on to the later life of the born childcausing health problems such as obesity (Amasha & Jaradeh 337).The study, therefore, will conclude theeffects of smoking on the weight of the baby after birth consideringthe mixed findings of different studies
Significance of the study
The study will be of great benefit to the various stakeholdersof the health sector, environmental policy makers, parents especiallymothers, as well as students and future researchers on mattersconcerning smoking of pregnant women and the effects it puts on theweight of babies after being born. Regarding the stakeholders in thehealth sector, the study will assist health practitioners inconducting independent evaluations of how children’s weights areaffected by prenatal smoking. The evaluations will then help indeveloping effective measures that ensure children born from smokingmothers maintain a healthy weight throughout their development, aswell as formulating effective methodologies for educating women,couples, and the society at large on the dangers that consumption oftobacco at pregnancy poses to both thehealth of the born and unborn babies. In regards to the environmentalpolicy makers, the study will equip them with knowledge of howpassive smoking in pregnant women affectsthe health of the children that would be born. As a result of theknowledge, the policy makers would thus formulate and enforce rulesthat prevent pregnant women from being exposed to passive tobaccosmoking. Parents on the other side will beenlightened on pregnancy smoking affects the weight of theirbabies after they are born, and would thus develop preventivemeasures that keep them away from tobacco consumption during theirgestation period. Also, students and other scholars will be able toshare new ideas obtained from this study and use the knowledge toadvance in their careers.
Aim of the study
The aim of this study is to examine smoking of pregnant woman andthe accompanying effect on the weight of the child after birth.
Concerning the research topic, the study seeks to determine thelength of the smoking period of a pregnantwoman in the pregnancy period, the frequency by which a pregnantwoman smokes, and the weight related issues encountered in a childborn to the smoking mother.
How long does a pregnant woman smoke during her pregnancy period?
How often does a pregnant woman smoke?
What are the weight related issues does maternal smoking at the time of pregnancy causes to the baby after birth?
H1. A pregnant woman smokes throughout her entire pregnantperiod.
H2. A pregnant woman smokes every day.
H3. The habit of maternal smokingat the time of pregnancy results to lowbirth weight of babies.
The research design is the blueprint thatpermits a study to be conducted withoptimal control over features that may hinder the validity of theresearch outcomes. The study will adopt a descriptive research designwhich will seek to examine smoking of pregnant woman and theaccompanying effects on the weight of childafter birth. According to Creswell (4), a descriptive study is astudy that tends to justify the natural happenings of a phenomenon.Descriptive research design will thus be appropriate for the studybecause the data will be both quantitativeand qualitative and will ensure that all relevant information iscaptured. Because data will becollected from various sources, descriptive research designwill permit a better understanding of theexpected complexity of the research topic. The approach, therefore,will reduce the possibilities of establishing assumptions and resultsthat are inaccurate. Besides, descriptive research design isnon-experimental and therefore will not cause interference to thenatural habits and behaviors of the individuals beingstudied.
The study will be conducted in various regions of Saudi Arabia andtargets pregnant women who smoke tobacco and children born frommothers who smoke. Participants will be chosenfrom maternity and children hospitals, as well as general hospitals.The study will be conducted in an urbanarea. An urban area is suitable because of its high populationdensity and thus high possibility of harboring smoking womenand therefore ensures data availability.
The study targets smoking pregnant women, smoking women who haverecently given birth, and children born from mothers who smokedduring their pregnancy period. In this study, the children born fromsmoking mothers will be chosen at the ageof fifteen years and below. The study will examine fifteen pregnantsmoking women and fifteen children born from smoking mothers Tolower the costs, increase accessibility of the study population, andobtain a higher speed of collec ting data
Data will be collected using two methods. First, through the useof structured questionnaires for collecting information concerningsmoking pregnant women such as the length of smoking period andfrequency of smoking. Secondly, medicalfiles will be used for capturing theweights of children born to mothers who consumed tobacco at thepregnancy period. Direct interviews will also be conducted to help infilling the questionnaires. Furthermore, every pregnant smoking womanwho will be willing to participate will be givena leaflet that contains the information of the study and a consentform to sign before obtaining data from them. Besides, the use of aquestionnaire is appropriate for this studybecause a broad range of data will be gatheredwithin limited time and also the respondents will remain anonymous, asituation that will enable them to express themselves without fearingthat they will be identified.
The researcher will analyze data by employing both qualitative andquantitative approaches. The analysis willadopt a descriptive method, and thefindings will be displayed in frequencydistribution tables to facilitate explanations. The combination ofquantitative and qualitative data will improve the evaluation as itensures that the strengths of one type of data stabilizethe limitations of the other. Therefore, the combination of bothqualitative and quantitative data analysis will ensure that theoriginal aim of the research is followed firmly to attainunprejudiced conclusions.
The researcher will ensure that the information given by therespondents for the purpose of the study istreated with confidentiality. The researcher will also educatethe respondents on the purpose of the study to avoid any cases ofvictimization after that. Besides, consentforms will be issued to willingparticipants before obtaining information from them. The researcherwill also obtain permission from the local authorities to allow theresearcher to access medical files in the health facilities.Furthermore, the researcher will not cause any disruptions to thenormal functioning of the health facilities.
The researcher will conduct a pilot study to test thevalidity and reliability of the questionnaire. A few questionnaireswill be distributed to respondents who willnot be included in the actual study. Anyadjustments to the questionnaire that will be necessary will,therefore, be made.
Robustness of data collection
The Kuderand Richardson Formula 20 test will be used to testfor the robustness of the questionnaire.
k = number of questions
pi= number of people in the sample whoanswered question i correctly
qi= number of people in the sample whodidn’t answer question i correctly
σ2 = variance of the total scoresof all the people taking the test
From the formula, a value of 0.5 or more will indicate that thequestionnaire is reliable, while a value of less than 0.5 willindicate that the questionnaire is unreliable and thus necessaryadjustments will be made.
The researcher will not have anymanipulative or self-interest motives to ensurethe conformability of qualitative data but will be neutral tothe objectivity of the study to ensure therespondents shape that study outcome. To ensure dependability,the researcher will present the findings in a consistent manner inregards to findings of previous researchers.
To ensure validity and reliability of the face and content of thestudy, the researcher will adhere to proper operational measures ofthe study topic. Besides, to establish internal reliability andvalidity of quantitative data, the questions in the questionnairewill be structured in a manner that they form casual relationshipswhere questions are linked to the precedingones. To ensure external validity and reliability, the researcherwill define the domains of the study outcomes in a generalized mannerand adhere to proper procedures when collecting data to ensure properresults of the study.
Procedure for the main study
To meet the objective of the study, the researcher will obtainpermission from the local authorities to enable access to prenataland postnatal records in the health facilities. The researcher willalso develop structured questionnaires that will be used to collectdata from respondents. The research targets fifteen pregnant smokingwomen and fifteen children born from smoking mothers. Thequestionnaire will be used to obtain data that regards smoking duringpregnancy, while information concerning the weightof babies will be obtained from prenataland postnatal records. The research will adopt t a descriptiveresearch design and data will be analyzed both qualitatively andquantitatively, and the findings will bepresented in frequency distribution tables.
Many previous studies have displayed consistency in the findingsconcerning smoking of a pregnant woman and the accompanyingeffects on the weight of a child afterbirth. The majority of the studies foundout the habit of smoking on a pregnant woman results to delivering ababy that has low birth weight. However, as the baby grows, the babygains excessive weight which causes obesity. This research,therefore, is expected to find out that a smoking pregnantwoman will deliver a baby that has low birth weight, and when thebaby grows, it gains weight abnormallywhich causes the baby to have obesity. It is alsoexpected that most smoking pregnant women smoke throughout theentire pregnancy period, and more frequently.
Telephone calls (for expeditions and follow ups)
Writing the proposal
Pre-testing the questionnaire
Actual data collection
Actual data analysis and presentation
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A Research Project Examining Smoking of Pregnant WomanAccompanying the Effect on the Weight of the Child after Birth.
I humbly invite you to participate in this research project whichregards smoking of a pregnant woman and accompanyingeffects on the weight of the child after birth. I’m also interestedto know how frequent a pregnant woman smokes and for how long doesshe smoke during the pregnancy period.
Reasons for conducting this research.
This research is part of the researcher’s degree course. It isalso hoped that the study will equip parents as well asvarious stakeholders in the health sector with useful informationconcerning the dangers that smoking during pregnancy puts on theweight of babies after birth.
Procedures that follow after accepting to participate in theproject.
The researcher will arrange a meeting depending onyour convenient time and place. There will be only one meeting whereyou will be expected to answer questions from a questionnaireand will last for not longer than thirty minutes. When the study iscompleted, a summary of the findings will beproduced, and a copy will be sent to you if you will beinterested.
Confidentiality of participation
If you agree to participate, you will remain anonymous,and your information will not be disclosedto anyone. Your response will only be usedfor the purpose of this study and not any other activities.
Advantages of participating in the project
You may find the study interesting particularly on answeringquestions that concern smoking. Besides, after the study iscompleted, it could provide advice and recommendationsregarding smoking during pregnancy.
It could be that you are uncomfortable talking about your smokinghabits.
Basis of participation
Your participation in this study is exclusively voluntary, and youhave been approached basing on a view thatyou might feel interested in participating.However, this does not imply that you have to. If you do notwish to participate, there is no need to provide a reason,and you would not be approached again.Besides, if you decide to participate, be free to withdraw anytimeyou feel.
Consent for Participation in Research Project that ExaminesSmoking of Pregnant Woman Accompanying the Effect on the Weight ofthe Child after Birth.
I have read clearly and understood the information pertained for the study mentioned above, and understand that the project is for academic purpose only.
I confirm that my participation in the study is based on voluntary grounds and can be withdrawn at any time without being penalized.
I agree that my identity to the research will remain anonymous and the information that I will provide will treat with confidentiality and will not be disclosed to anyone.
I understand that by signing this document I therefore agree to become a participant in the study.
Name of participant Date Signature
__ __ ___
Name of researcher Date Signature
Smoking of Pregnant Woman and the Accompanied Effect on theChild’s Weight after Birth
The questionnaire seeks information aboutSmoking of Pregnant Woman and the Accompanied Effect on theChild’s Weight after Birth. The informationprovideswill be treated with utmost confidentiality, sincerity and isstrictly meant for academic pursuance.
Kindly answer the questions, your response will be highlyappreciated.
Section A: General information
Name of respondent (optional)
Marital status Married Single
Section B: tick the choice you feel is appropriate, and provide aswell as provide answers to the open questions.
For how long have you been smoking in your life?
For how old is your pregnancy? __
For how long have you been smoking while pregnant?
Lessthan 3 months
3to 6 months
to 9 months
4. How often do you smoke per day?___
5. How many cigarettes do you smoke per day?___
6. What are your beliefs concerning the dangers of pregnancy smokingto your child?
7.Would you consider to quit smoking until the birth of your child?
8.Are you interested in getting help to stop Smoking?
THANK YOU FOR YOUR CORPORATION!
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