Thesituation in united airlines is getting out of hand. This is after apassenger was brutally bumped off the plane some days ago. Thesituation was still and calm when the passengers were boarding theplane. However, the tranquil environment was disrupted when unitedannounced that the plane was overbooked and four passengers needed toget out to give space to fourUnited’s staff who were travelling to Louisville for company’soperations. Anyone willing to give their seats would get a $400voucher from the airline. However, passengers seemed not to care andthe airline doubled its offer to give $800 and later $1000 voucherfor any willing passenger. The offer was still rendered futile as nopassenger dared to step forward forcing the airline’s employees toadopt another method.
Daringly,one of the United’s employees warned the passengers that the planewould not take off until four passengers stepped out. This was wherethe drama begun. The daring employee selected four passengers to bebumped and three of them cooperated. Among the three was a mid-20scouple who begrudgingly stepped out. However, the fourth passengerselected seemed to be unmoved by the staff’s threats to call thesecurity if he defied the order. He claimed that he was a doctor byprofession and needed to attend to his patients the followingmorning. In addition, the passenger complained that he was selectedon racial grounds since he was Chinese. This created a tenseenvironment for airline’s employees who had occupied the vacatedseats as other passengers berated them and cursed their actions. Uponarrival of the security team, the passenger was brutally dragged offhis seat as he screamed and cursed the security officer. As hestruggled in the hands of the brutal officers, his glasses slid downhis face as the other passengers watched the drama in surprise.
Itis still not yet clear how the man managed to board the flight againbut a passenger who witnessed the whole saga reports that he returnedto the flight shortly before being taken off the plane on astretcher.
Thesaga has raised concerns to the international community where theairline is condemned for mistreating the passenger. Physicalconfrontation and brutality in solving disputes is unacceptable asit’s a violation of human rights. Overbooking is common in mostairlines but mistreating a passenger simply because he/she refuses tobe bumped out brings out the malpractice. Crane (2016) indicates theethics that guide international businesses. The Chicago department ofaviation has claimed that the incident is against the set standardsin operation of airlines. The officer whose identity is hidden hasbeen given a job break until the airline and judiciary decides hisfate.
Anotherissue which catalyzes the incident is the criterion used to selectthe four passengers. It would be unfair for an employee to select a person randomly sincethey can be biased and discriminate against some passengers. Forinstance, the passenger claims that he was selected just because hewas Chinese. The issue of racial discrimination have been addressedby different authorities in different countries. Every individual hasthe right to be treated equally regardless of their race, gender orethnicity. Sellers (2003, 1079) gives various dimensions of racialdiscrimination.
Beforebumping out passengers, airlines must consider different factors suchas: passenger’s willingness to give up their seats, the travelschedule and personal plans, family attachments and time taken torebook the passengers.
Toavoid such scenarios in future, airlines should come up with abooking policy for its passengers that forbids bumping out ofpassengers voluntarily or involuntarily. According toPrince(2009, 336-354), airlines should base their performance on quality oftheir services. The airlines should also set strict rules regardinghandling of passengers and anyone defying these rules chargedheavily. This will reduce inefficiencies and inconveniences inairlines operations.
Crane,Andrew, and Dirk Matten. Businessethics: Managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the ageof globalization.Oxford University Press, 2016.
Prince,Jeffrey T., and Daniel H. Simon. "Multimarket contact andservice quality: Evidence from on-time performance in the US airlineindustry." Academyof Management Journal52.2 (2009): 336-354.
Sellers,Robert M., and J. Nicole Shelton. "The role of racial identityin perceived racial discrimination." Journalof personality and social psychology84.5 (2003): 1079.
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TheAffordable Care Act (ACA)
Thehealth care system in the U.S. is quite intricate. The country spendshuge amounts of cash in health care. Due to the issues facing thesector, President Barack Obama championed the Affordable Care Actthat would implement comprehensive reforms to enhance the quality ofcare, affordability, and accessibility to the facilities. TheAffordable Care Act (ACA) marked an important point in the USAhistory when it was enacted into law in March 2010. Other programssuch as Medicare and Medicaid that were implemented earlier did notmake an impact to the ordinary man the way Obama care did. The paperwill focus on the history of the ACA Act, its implementation and theresultant effects on the average person.
Themain aim of the Obama care is to ensure that every American citizenis capable of obtaining insurance coverage on their health withoutconsidering the condition of their health at the time of taking thecover. The insurance companies are to ensure every person dependingon the number of people taking an insurance cover for specific areas.The act was developed with features that allow for the insurance ofcitizens who have very low incomes and cannot afford to pay themonthly premiums Also the act caters for people who receive averageincomes and can afford to pay hospital bills in private hospitals.The government pays a certain amount to the private hospital so thatthey will reduce the cost of their healthcare. Therefore, ordinarypeople with average incomes can go to those hospitals. Americancitizens who do not have insurance coverage because they are notemployed, or there is no insurance service in their workplaces canafford to pay for private hospitals [CITATION Jul17 l 1033 ].
Sincethe inception of the Act, a record breaking number of over ninemillion citizens have been insured. Although the law does noteliminate the gap that still exists between affordable care andinsurance, a lot of people have benefited from the act. At the timewhen the Act was being implemented, some people had been insured, andit did not affect the policy they had purchased from the insurer.Before the Act came into law, many people were skeptical because ofthe expected rise in the cost of personal insurance and the increasein government spending because of the initiatives such as subsidy.Ironically, the opposite of what was expected has occurred with thecost of the individual cover being lower than initially perceived andthe federal government has spent a lower amount of money [ CITATION Coond l 1033 ].Each state is to incorporate the acts resolutions in its healthcareprograms, especially for people who are not able to take an insurancecover because of their financial background. Since the incorporationof the act into the general population, other smaller programs haveemerged from the primary programs such as affordable insurancecoverage to the way physicians and hospitals get their income. Theimplementation of the income distribution in healthcare will mostlybe beneficial to employee and businesses in the public sector. On theother hand, doctors and hospitals will indirectly benefit from theact because the private insurers may not change how they award aninsurance claim[CITATION Wen12 p 15 l 1033 ].
Theact has resulted in changes that have sent ripples in the financialsectors of healthcare. A revolution on the way incomes are awardedbetween the doctors and hospitals has an impact on the relationshipbetween the patient and the doctor. The financial market has changeddue to the significant market changes brought by the shifts in theinsurance industry where the government is reducing the number ofcompanies that provide the cover. This has the effect of reducing thecost of insurance coverage because many people will be insuredagainst the occurrence of a particular risk. The concept of insuranceis to create a common pool of financial resources from many people tocover the occurrence of risks of a few of the people that may occurover a given time. The higher the number of insured people for aparticular risk, the lower the cost of cover. Also, the act has alsoaffected the patients because he has to dig deeper to pay for thehealth packages. To counter the dynamic changes in the market, thehospitals and doctors have also formed large organizations toconcentrate on their interests [CITATION Car14 p 1 l 1033 ].
Theact has been seen as the abuse of power by the government because itgives it the power that surpasses its mandate. The law received a lotof opposition from the Republicans. The center of the debate on theconstitutional relevance on the act was based on the ideas that allcitizens are to secure healthcare through a private body or theAffordable Care Act. Court battles in the Supreme Court have fuelledmore questions on the validity of the acts in relation to theconstitution. Despite the court making an appositive decision tosupport the act, many stakeholders have continued to poke holes tothe act further increasing the controversy. The act has consistentlyreceived opposition from politicians, small businesses, and states.The act suggests the creation of local exchanges in the states, butthe problem is that some states do not have local exchanges. Federalexchanges in states without local exchanges is against the law, andthus the act’s legality was questionable.
TheSupport and Opposition to the Affordable Health Care Act.
TheAffordable Care Act (ACA) has had its significant share of discontentamong several prominent political figures. One of the prominentpolitical figures against the ACA is the current U.S. PresidentDonald Trump. Furthermore, the act has been distasted by manyrepublican figures due to ideological, historical, and economicreasons [CITATION Rai14 p 450 l 1033 ].Many other conservatives like Tom Price perceive the universalinsurance as an exemplification of the government influencing theprivate relation between the doctors and patients. It is anideological perception drawn from the fact that Americans with thecapability to purchase the insurance assist the ones who get themfrom the government-run marketplace. The ACA is also thought to beinstigation against state-offered medical care (The Economist).
Oneof the foremost campaigners of the ACA is the former presidentBarrack Obama. As a prominent figure, he supported the enactment ofthe ACA deeming it a crucial element to the enhancement of the healthstatus of the United States populace. According to the formerpresident, the ACA provides health coverage for many people,particularly the low-income earners as well as the kids. It alsomakes preventive care free hence, reducing the overall medicalcosts. In that regard, Americans will be able to access qualityhealthcare. ACA also yearly as well as lifetime coverage limits. Theinsurance programs will have to cater for several vital healthbenefits such as treating mental health services, childbirth,prescription drug coverage, and chronic diseases among others.Another major aim of the ACA is to prevent the insurance corporationsfrom rejecting people individual for pre-existing situations. Assuch, parents will be able to cover their kids until the age of 26 [ CITATION Aue13 l 1033 ].
Evidently,the cost of health care impacts significantly on the economy and thefederal budget. As a matter of fact, it affects all the Americanpeople particularly concerning the financial well-being. In thatrespect, health insurance aids the American people in differentperspectives. For instance, adults at work become more productivechildren perform well in school, and people live long healthy lives.Possessing a cover alleviates all the fears that might hinderproductivity. It is no secret that coverage has been vastly enhanceddue to the ACA. People could afford the health care costs in the pastdue to its expensiveness. The rates were quite high, particularlyamong the low income earners. Nonetheless, after the inception of theACA, the rates subsided while it has also benefited the nonelderlyadults. Evidently, most of these individuals are acquiring theirpersonal physicians thus improving care [CITATION And14 p 56 l 1033 ].
Beforethe adoption of this law, critics anticipated the labor market to beaffected negatively. However, it is not the case as the rates ofemployment have increased. The law also increased the options orrather areas of coverage. Another important section covered by thelaw is the means of service payment. Initially, the fee-for-servicedominated the system. However, with the inception of the ACA,alternative payment models are being developed. Some of the modelsinclude bundle payment and the population-based ones such as theACOs. In developing alternative payment methods, the law has enhancedcoverage while improving the delivery of service. As evidenced in thevarious figures, significant gains have achieved since the inceptionof the law. The policy intended to improve the quality of service inthe healthcare system. Though it is a complex undertaking, the lawhas achieved considerable gains in ensuring the same. Even though thebenefits are evident, some of the elements championed have not yethit maximum potential. There is still much to be done, and it mighttake some years to reach the maximum effect. The president predictsfurther improvements by 2018 especially in the delivery of servicethrough the adherence to quality and accountability.
Itis worth noting that even of the rates have been standardized tocater for the low-income earners there is still a huge section thatdeems it expensive. Heightening competition in the healthcare sectorwill improve delivery. This is true since competition improvesservice delivery to attract more consumers. Attaining change in thehealth sector is quite hard. All the key figures related to medicalcare need to be integrated to achieve maximum results. In general,the ACA has been a success and is bound to improve the healthcaresystem even further in the coming years. The Act strives to heightenthe quality of care, affordability, and accessibility to medicalservices [ CITATION Bar16 l 1033 ].
Anderson, A. The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on the Health Care Workforce. Washington, DC: The Heritage Foundation, 2014.
Auerbach, David I. "The Nursing Workforce in an Era of Health Care Reform." New England Journal of Medicine (2013): 1470–1472.
Carolyn K. Shue, Kerry Anne McGeary, Ian Reid, Jagdish Khubchandani, and Maoyong Fan. "Health Care Reform: Understanding Individuals’ Attitudes and Information Sources." BioMed Research International (2014). <https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/813851/>.
Cooper, Jim. "Groups opposing the American Health Care Act." n.d. 4 April 2017. <https://cooper.house.gov/groups-opposing-republican-health-plan>.
DeBonis, Juliet Eilperin and Mike. "Doctors, hospitals and insurers oppose Republican health plan." 8 March 2017. The Washington Post. 4 April 2017. <https://www.washingtonpost.com/powerpost/doctors-hospitals-and-insurers-oppose-republican-health-plan/2017/03/08/d9f0f5c2-0426-11e7-ad5b-d22680e18d10_story.html?utm_term=.897b6dcb6d7b>.
Obama, Barack. "United States Health Care Reform Progress to Date and Next Steps." 11 July 2016. <http://jama.jamanetwork.com/>.
Rainey, Charles Barrilleaux and Carlisle. "The Politics of Need: Examining Governors` Decision to Oppose the "Obamacare" Medicaid Expansion." (2014): 437-460. <http://www.carlislerainey.com/papers/need.pdf>.
The Economist. "Why Republicans hate Obamacare." 11 December 2016. 3 April 2017. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2016/12/economist-explains-1>.
Wendy Gross, Tobias Stark, Jon, K., Pasek, J., Sood, G., Agiesta, J, and Junius, D. "Americans Attitudes Toward the Affordable Care Act: Would better public understanding increase ot decrease favorability?" (2012): 1-26.
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Inthis article, Michael Christie is trying to say that the increasinglyhigh usage of digital technologies in the facilitation of culturaland educational work among aboriginals may undermineintergenerational transmission of traditions due to westerninfluences. According to him, most of these digital technologies areproduced in western countries where they bear western assumptionsconcerning the nature of knowledge. The author uses evidence from ajoint database development to show the configuration andrepresentation of resources. According to him, the implication isthat aboriginal communities become blinded by the functionality ofthese technologies, which dents their ability to pass their culturalknowledge and traditions to the young generations for posterity. Thiserodes the cultural lifeline of a community leading to the adoptionof western culture. He recommends that societies should re-think thestructures on which their culture is founded and use them to informthe design of information technology to bypass the biases andproliferation of western cultures.
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Technologicaladvancement has enabled the solution of infertility cases in couples.Technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) has provided a wayof solving infertility issues. Unfortunately, assisted reproductionhas an adverse effect of implanting several embryos. The couples haveto undergo a process known as multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR)to terminate the added number of pregnancies through a process knownas heart puncture. The research paper will focus on the history ofMFPR, what is involved in the research, the problems encountered inwork both scientific and medical. The paper will also focus on therecipients of multifetal reduction, the status of the work in themedical and scientific fields and lastly, the legal and technicalaspects surrounding the process.
Literatureand History of MFPR
Invitro fertilization results in pregnancies of “higher order”which mean that the woman has more than one fetus implanted in herwomb. 7.3 % of the higher order assisted pregnancies result inconception, therefore, dealing with that number of pregnanciesrequires the help of obstetrical personnel who are experts in thatfield. Although the experts utilize the current technology in takingcare of the multiple pregnancies, the risks involved are extremelyhigh. For this reason, new approaches have been developed to reducethe number of pregnancies to two or one. Researchers who specializein human genome developed a process where the fetuses which can beassessed easily are eliminated by stabbing their hearts with aneedle. This process is known as heart puncture. The killed fetusesare left in the womb until the mother gives birth to the survivingones[CITATION Ant12 p 15 l 1033 ].
Initially,the MFPR process was developed to solve cases of infertility, butcurrently, it is being used by major hospitals particularly inWestern Europe and North America. In these regions, patients areoffered multifetal pregnancy reduction as a solution to multiplepregnancies. This shows that many couples are accepting the MFPR. Dueto the expanded use of the method, the procedure has been advanced toincrease its effectiveness. Most hospitals are including MFPR intotheir programs and offering to customers as the best way to manageunwanted multiple pregnancies. Some couples desire more than onechild in a single pregnancy, thus through IVF, they can get morechildren. A problem arises when the implanted embryos are more thanthe number that they desired, which results in a situation where thecouples are faced with a mandatory option of abortion to reduce thenumber of pregnancies. For the couples, the situation becomesuncomfortable, particularly when the abortion can be done in the 26thweek of gestation. Thus the couples are faced with the issue ofabortion that consequently affects their psyche[CITATION Pra12 p 820 l 1033 ].
Althougha lot of research has been conducted since the inception of assistedreproduction, studies done on the patients faced with the problem ofinfertility is small. It was not until 1995 when the views ofinfertility patients were considered and investigated to determinetheir attitude toward multiple births. The medical practitionersimplemented the MFPR without consulting the recipients of theprocess. The desire to deliver a healthy baby has outweighed thepsychological effects on women. Thorough research should be conductedto access the psychological effects fetal reduction has on couplesand come up with a system that includes all the relevant partiesespecially the couples.
TheMFPR is a process of eliminating the other fetuses which wereimplanted, so that chances of a successful pregnancy will increase.The expectant mother can handle one fetus more easily than a two orthree fetuses. According to research, there is no proof of increasedchances of a successful birth. For this reason, many people in themedical and scientific fields have advocated for the reduction of thenumber of fertilized embryos, which are implanted in a woman’swomb. Most of the research is done by practitioners who alreadysupport the idea, and thus their findings may be biased. In mostsocieties, abortion is a serious issue which is regarded asunethical, especially in countries which have stringent laws toprevent abortion. In some countries, medically induced abortion ispermitted by their laws[CITATION Eva13 p 156 l 1033 ].
Thereis a lot of research done on MFPR by researchers who collaboratefrequently. Most of them cite each other in the publications andtherefore results in a situation where critical analysis of both thenegative and positive effects of the process is not done adequately.The problem is further enhanced by the fact that the researcher arepractitioners who advocate for the process and therefore theirfindings tend to major on the advantages of the MFPR more than itslimitations. The data collected by different people is similar andsometimes the same which in general depicts the shallow researchconducted. But there is a common idea shared by all the researchfindings, which is the reduction in the number of implanted embryos,which consequently will lead to the reduction of the number ofpregnancies, thus assisted reproduction will result in a normalnumber of births experienced by naturally conceived babies.
Effectsof the Fetal Reduction
Parentswho undergo the process of MFPR suffer from stress due to thereduction of pregnancies through the process of abortion. Societyviews abortion as murder, and just like any other case of murder, theinvolved party suffers from post-traumatic stress particularly ifit’s their first time to commit the act. Most couples are ordinarypeople who have neither served in the military police nor involved incriminal activities. Therefore, their tolerance to death is low,resulting in feelings of guilt, pain, sadness and betrayal by doctorswho did the abortion without consulting them. Some parents recoverfrom the abortion initiated stress while others do not healcompletely. Studies done to investigate the effects of MFPR on thelives of couples has been insufficient. A few medical and scientificbodies have been involved in this research, although the topic is nota priority to the researchers. The MFPR has always been assumed bymedical practitioners to be successful thus few studies have beenconducted to ascertain the claims[CITATION Leg03 p 542 l 1033 ].
Manyquestions have been asked regarding the parent`s awareness of theabortion done during the multifetal pregnancy reduction. The doctorshave always disregarded the couple`s participation in thedecision-making process of determining the fate of the fertilizedembryos. Many questions have been asked. How many are fertilizedembryos implanted in a woman? Is abortion necessary? Who shoulddetermine the fate of the fertilized eggs? What are the ethicalissues surrounding the process? All over the world, governments andNon-governmental institutions have strongly advocated for familyplanning to reduce the population. Therefore, doctors who are alsosupporters of small families will always favor fetal reduction whenit comes to MFPR. Thus, it is assumed that the couples would not wantseveral babies. Furthermore, the doctors do not give parents anopportunity to decide the number of pregnancies they should have[CITATION Leg03 p 542 l 1033 ].
TheRecipients of MFPR
MFPRwas a process initiated to help couples who are suffering frominfertility. There is a lot of research done on the psychologicalstress caused by a couple’s inability to bear children of theirown. Even though reproductive technologies such as in-vitrofertilization has enabled couples to get children, still the failureto conceive naturally results into incidences of self-denial. TheMFPR was developed to give this type of couples a chance to a normallife. According to studies done, most couples do not give birth thefirst time the process in done they have to come several numbers oftimes to be successful. Sometimes the treatments can be as long asnine attempts before the couple can finally be successful inconceiving. Each unsuccessful attempt brings hope thendisappointment.
Peoplewho experience infertility for a very long are always depressed, andtheir psyche is vulnerable because of the difficulty in bearingchildren naturally. Surrogacy and IVF have negative effects on theirpsyche also. For IVF, research done shows that women are greatlyaffected by IVF than men. Both women and men suffer psychologicallyduring the treatment cycles, but for women, the negative effects ofthe treatments are more pronounced, evidenced by their frequentpsychological swings. The positive impact of the IVF process is thehope and intimacy obtained due to the couple’s solution of theirinfertility. Therefore, desensitization and denial are some of thetools used by women to cope with the psychological stress caused byunsuccessful IVF and abortion due to multifetal pregnancy reduction[CITATION Eva13 p 154 l 1033 ].
Ideally,a couple should determine whether their pregnancy should be reducedor not. But this choice is taken away by doctors who assume that thelong-term infertility the couples have experienced has affected theirpsychological well-being and thus they cannot make clear decisions.Mostly, the doctors decide the number of pregnancies that willsurvive and the couples are given that information later. There arecases where the parents voice their concerns, and the doctors,therefore, have to listen to their wishes. According to researchdone, 99% of the women who have undergone multifetal pregnancyreduction conceived through assisted means, and in this case, theygot pregnant through In vitro fertilization. Therefore, these womenhave a strong desire to give a successful birth. The women will mostdefinitely agree with all the decisions the doctors make which willensure the successful birth of their babies[CITATION Ant12 p 15 l 1033 ].
Coupleswho have had infertility become desperate and are willing to tryanything even though it may be viewed as morally wrong by society.For such parents, a solution to their infertility problem, whethernatural or scientific is morally right. As long as such couples cangive birth, the process taken does not matter. Thus, desperatecouples do not have free will since their decisions are affected bytheir psychological status, and they can easily be coerced intoaccepting any decision a medical practitioner makes.
Legaland Technical Issues
Thereare several techniques employed in the reduction of fetuses inmultiple pregnancies. These techniques have legal implications whichare unclear because statutes put in place to regulate the proceduresare ambiguous. Furthermore, the laws do not specify the legal actionto be taken for the components of the methods. Technologicaladvancement in the medical field has seen a remarkable change in theway we view life. The legal framework with which the medicalpractitioners use in their areas is outdated because of the rapidadvancement in technology, and the statutory bodies are not able tokeep up[CITATION Pra12 p 825 l 1033 ].
ASstated earlier, the fetal reduction is not well understood by law.The closest definition we can relate to is abortion, which is similarto fetal reduction, although the two are not equal in regards totheir legality. While the primary reason for abortion is termination,the fetal reduction main reason is to reduce the number of fetuses.The significant difference between the two is intent. A womanundergoing MFPR intends to decrease the number of pregnancies for thesole purpose of increasing the chances of a healthy birth of thesurviving fetuses while abortion is done for the sole purpose ofterminating the whole pregnancy. The law is clear on abortion, whichis illegal unless it is medically induced, but at the same time, thelaw is unclear on MFPR[CITATION Leg03 p 542 l 1033 ].
Furtherstudies should be conducted to determine the impacts of MFPR to theparents, the medical fraternity, and society as a whole. People areembracing this technique of fetal reduction, and thus a clear legalframework should be developed to aid in the continued advancement ofthe technology.
Antsaklis, A and E Anastasakis. "Selective Reduction in Twins and Multiple Pregnancies." Journal of Perinatal Medicine (2012): 15.
Committee, Practice. "Elective Single-embryo Transfer." Fertility and Sterilit (2012): 800 -835.
Evans, MI, et al. "Evolution of Gender Options in Multiple Pregnancy." Prenatal Diagnosis (2013): 150-157.
Legendre, CM, et al. "Differences Between Selective Termination of Pregnancy and Fetal Reduction in Multiple Pregnancy: A Narrative Review." Reproductive BioMedicine Online (203): 542.
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(Insert surname) 4
Article Review on Human Sexuality
In the past, the concept of human sexuality was not a necessity tothe social work students. However, several studies have confirmed theimportance of human sexuality to the social work students sincesexuality is a key attribute in the life of people. It defineshuman`s true nature (Daley and Thomas 4). The article brings moreinsights into the journey of human sexuality as part of the socialwork curriculum. The social work professionals meet different clientshaving a variety of problems. The human sexuality stands as one ofthe issues rarely addressed by the social work practitioners. Thearticle comprehensively discusses the problems about the adoption ofhuman sexuality as a course for the social work students and thevarious challenges faced by the students in learning about humansexuality.
The human sexuality was covered in other disciplines. Hence, somescholars felt there was no need to introduce it to social workstudents since it was adequately covered in other courses. Thearticle widely discusses the introduction of the human sexualitycourses in the social work curriculum (Valentich and James 273). Thestudents ought to develop a strong personality to be objective withthe issue of sexuality with the clients and to gain unmatched skillsin the field of human sexuality. One of the hypotheses for thearticle was that the students are not free to address the sexualityissues with the clients.
The article incorporates a survey on the social work students atdifferent levels of their year of study and among the students whospecialize in various fields of study. Some students were selectedfor the seminar in which they were to undergo the course in humansexuality. The seminar was more of experimentation on undertaking thehuman sexuality course to impart knowledge on the students.
One of the fundamental findings was that the human sexualityknowledge in the social work students was not in any way above theknowledge level of students who focus on other disciplines (Valentichand James 273). The sexuality issues are still new in the field ofsocial work profession. Hence, sexuality has not been widely talkedabout in the research articles. The sex issues amongst the peoplewere not addressed, which prompted the need to introduce the courseto the social work students. The students also had different feelingsregarding the sex talk with their peers, and different strategieswere employed to make the students develop mutual trust and to speakto each other freely.
The article ought to have addressed the real issue raised by the fewcolleagues who did not understand the need for the human sexualityeducation. The training of the social work students was emotionallystraining. Hence, there was the need to have professional counselorswho could talk to the students who might have been adversely affectedby the study. The methods of collecting data such as the interviewsand experimentations are not comprehensively covered in the article.
The study is relevant to the social work students who plan toundertake the course in human sexuality. It provides useful insightson the journey of human sexuality that was ignored as an importantaspect of human life (Valentich and James 279).
Sexuality is an attribute in people. However, people always perceivedthe human sexuality as a private matter. The introduction of humansexuality provides the professionals with an in-depth knowledge andexperience in tackling the sexuality issues affecting the clients.The course also gives an opportunity for the social work students tohave greater insights into human sexuality more than otherprofessions.
Daley, Ellen, and Thomas Mason. "Human Sexuality." (n.d.):1-39. Pdf.
Valentich, Mary, and James Gripton. "Teaching Human Sexuality toSocial Work Students." The Family Coordinator 24 (1975): 273-80.Pdf.
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