The is a global concurrence that is associated with theUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It was agreedto in Kyoto, Japan on 11th December 1997 and entered into force on5th February 2005 (Fletcher, 2015). The aim of this agreement is tocut down gas emissions, by having the member countries agreeing toemanation cutback objectives. The points out that theindustrialized nations are major contributors to the present highlevels of greenhouse gas (GHG) discharges. The developed countrieshappen to be in this position due to more than 150 years ofmanufacturing actions. The treaty lays a severe burden on developedstates guided by the code of common but differentiatedresponsibilities to tame on emissions of GHGs (Fletcher, 2015).
Theenvironmental issue that is addressed in the agreement is climate andenvironment change it is rather a complex subject that entailsthings like GHG emissions, economic progression, poverty, andsustainable living in the globe. The chief problem that is addressedby the treaty is the sustainable environment. That is, having asustainable economic growth while bringing to an end global warming(Fletcher, 2015). When the normal climatic conditions are altered dueto industrial activities, the economy and ecosystems are affected.Climate and environmental change is a worldwide issue, which requiresthe attention of all the nations because the issue directly affectsthe global population.
Alreadythe developed countries have pledged to cut down their annual carbonemissions, as considered in six GHGs. In 2010, member states agreedthat the future global warming is supposed to be restricted beneath 2degrees Celsius, comparative to the pre-industrial heat point. Toattain this objective, the greenhouse gasses atmosphericconcentrations should be held at 450 parts per million. However, thisstabilization is linked with twenty-six to seventy-eight risks ofgoing beyond the 2 degrees Celsius target (Fletcher, 2015). Thepolicies that are set to meet GHGs emissions established by KyotoTreaty are being implemented at national and regional levels. Theyare guided by efficiency principles and inducements to advance ininfrastructure which does not increase the carbon dioxide emissions.
192parties to the agreement have ratified the treaty, involving 191countries and one regional economic bloc. The settlement required 37developed countries together with the EU to lower their GHGsemissions. China and India were exempted from the treaty togetherwith over 100 developing nations. The agreement required at least 55states to ratify it. The 55 countries constituted 55 percent ofglobal emissions as at 1990. Parties agreed to cut their emissions to5 percent between 2008 and 2012. According to a report by CarbonGlobal Atlas, the United States and China are largest contributors ofGHGs and yet the U.S. is not a member of the treaty (Fletcher, 2015).
Fletcher,S. (2015). Globalclimate change treaty(3rd ed.). [Washington, D.C.]: Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress.
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