Lab Report Lab Report
LAB REPORT 5
Importantconcepts essential to understand the experiments
Elephantsare at risk as a result of increased illicit ivory trade andimproving regulations through the use of linking DNA to thegeographic regions can address the problem. The articles use acombination of statistical method and genetics to establish thepoached ivory origin. The statistical approach used involvesestimation of the frequency of geographic specific alleles in allAfrican elephants using tissue and scat samples from savannah andforest elephants in the different locations. The geographic specificallele frequency estimates assist in inferring geographic origins ofDNA samples. The articles explore the different techniques that canbe to indicate how DNA can be applied to ivory trade to protectelephants from poaching.
Themethod used relies on non invasive technique to obtain DNA from scatthat was used to assist in development of geographic mapping ofelephant allele frequencies, acquiring DNA from small quantities ofivory from the tusk, and using smoothing techniques in the estimationof allele frequencies in a continuous region while using genotypes ofreference samples from the various locations (Wasser,Brown, Mailand, Mondol, Clark, Laurie & Weir, 2015). Thestatistical process gives room for improving accuracy and allowsassignment of samples to locations that lack reference samples. Thisis imperative because ivory seizures may come from such type oflocations. The idea is using DNA technique that assigns every ivoryseizure to its respective population in relation to the place oforigin across Africa and Asia. The results indicate recurrentpatterns which are critical in helping law enforcement agenciesefforts to reduce organized trade in ivory while also protectingvulnerable elephant populations.
Eventhough efforts have been made to curb elephant poaching, prevalencerates are still high which threatens the African elephantsidentification of the main poaching hotspots can improve efforts toend poaching.
Theresults of the experiments
Theresults from the experiment indicate that the main elephant poachingis concentrated in a few locations. Identification of these locationscan enable law enforcement officers to be vigilant in the hotspotareas in order to help in curtailing future loss of the everdeteriorating number of elephants in Africa and disrupt furthertransnational crime.
Unexpectedresults & why those results may have been obtained
Oneof the unexpected results is the fact that the alleles may sometimesbe considerably difficult to differentiate is small geographiclocations which makes finer distinction difficult. The problemrequires high quality statistical methods that must involvecollection of samples from as many locations as possible. Also, thestudy can be challenging to accomplish due to effects ofhybridization between the savannah and forest elephants.
Elephantsare facing the threat of extinction due to high rates of poaching.The alarming revelation requires intervention through identifyingboth the frequency and position of the main poaching areas that canhelp in ending ivory poaching while assisting in the recovery ofelephant populations (Wasser,Shedlock, Comstock,Ostrander, Mutayoba & Stephens, 2004).Improved law enforcement, monitoring trade activities, determinationof whether impounded stock piles are getting back into the illegalmarket, establishing whether sanctioned sales are includingnon-sanctioned sales ivory tusks that originate from the hotspots,and determination of illegal stockpiles that are getting consolidatedand exported can all be used by this technique to monitor themovement of ivory. Genetic methods can help in determining theorigins of DNA from ivory, scat, and tissue which can contribute toconserving and managing elephants.
Wasser,S. K., Shedlock, A. M., Comstock, K., Ostrander, E. A., Mutayoba, B.,& Stephens, M.
(2004).Assigning African elephant DNA to geographic region of origin:applications to the ivory trade. Proceedingsof the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,101(41),14847-14852.
Wasser,S. K., Brown, L., Mailand, C., Mondol, S., Clark, W., Laurie, C., &Weir, B. S. (2015).
Geneticassignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa’smajor poaching hotspots. Science,349(6243),84-87.
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Howthe environment at Montara Beach changed over geologic time
Thislab test aims at reconstructing the geologic history of the MontaraState beach. Interesting geologic features such as faults, erosionalunconformities, granites, dune deposits and marine terrace depositswere recorded at the beach. During the field trip, a number of issueswere studied ranging from the modern environment in the area,observation of the crystalline basement, observation of sediments,and faults. Geological Surveys make available maps, geologicalreports, and other data to advice governments and the public on howthe earth works. Other reports can also be used for educationalpurposes. In addition, geologic understanding of how areas havechanged enables scholars to anticipate changes and plan ahead in caseof any life-threatening geologic occurrences that may happen.
Asillustrated in table 1, the beach is characterized by a rising tidallevel of 0.5-5ft. Beach sand is coarse and sub-angular and its sourceis the granite rocks in the area. The area is a 0.8-mile stretch thathas a number of access points to the highway. The area ischaracterized with rugged trails that lead to the sand area of thebeach. It has low hills on either side. The area is defined bysea-facing cliffs that provide another perspective of how the areahas changed throughout history.
Basementand Sediment Layer Description
TheMontara beach can be summed up to have distinct sedimentary beds asshown by the different sedimentary deposits. In location 2, the clastsize is very poorly sorted and it is rounded. The clast is comprisedof different layers of pebble and fine material. Eroded sediments areheaped on the fault line. At location 4, the clast is made of finesand that is well sorted. The clast is composed of clay material andit is rounded. The clast colors range from grey, green to yellow andthis can be attributed to chemical weathering in the area above thesediment and granite layers. Location 5 has angular clast roundnessand the sediment is grey in color.
Location6 has well-sorted sand whose composition is coal. The sedimentorganization is granite at the bottom and coal on top. At location 7,the clast is well sorted too and it is rounded. It is composed ofsand and this results from the dune deposits.
Thearea`s sedimentation is made of deposits of sand, clay, and gravelthat has been eroded by a combination of high tides and waves.Erosion is a common feature in the area and the eroded materials aredeposited an area. The Montara beach is affected by the ever changingconditions that result from forces of wind, currents, tides andwaves.
Asindicated in table 4, the Montara fault is characterized with astrike-slip that is less than one meter. The sedimentary material canbe sported on the fault line and this can be summarized as anindication that the region has undergone a lot of erosion, foldingand faulting, depositional cycles among other fault activities. Othernotable features are ground stability that has been greatly affectedby cliff erosion.
Thepurpose of this trip was to establish how the Montara beach haschanged over geologic time. In the field, study the type of rocks wasdone, sedimentation, faults and the beach setting was explored indepth. The Montara beach is covered by the geologic map that extendedfrom the flat marine terraces to the precipitous cliffs along thePacific Coastline. The topography is rugged and extends to the tidalland of San Francisco Bay. The area`s rugged topography is separatedby a number of northwest-trending trenches. Major faults separateinto four structural blocks and on the geologic map, faults arespecified by a single line that represents most prominent and recentactive trace in the faulting zones.
Thearea is characterized with Montara granites that are an indication ofstrain with no any form of orientation of joints that stands out. Thejoints cannot be easily associated with any form of deformation. Therocks in the area must have deformed during the folding up period asthe sedimentary rocks are quite visible. Ascertaining the extent andnature of this deformation is difficult to ascertain. Granites arethe oldest rocks in the Montara beach. The rocks represent igneousintrusions into the Mesozoic sediments of the area. The Montaracoastline exhibits considerable geologic deformation. Examples offaulting and folding can be seen in the area. The fault introduces ahuge lithologic change in the Montara coastal bedrock that bringsfine siltstone into contact with the sandstone. The coastal rangescan be observed to have undergone through large-scale deformationthat is responsible for the nature of the coastline.
Inconclusion, the Montara Beach has undergone through a series ofgeologic changes in the form of sedimentation, faults, and rockstructure. This trip has proved to be invaluable and informativesince it has provided a practical application of what has beenlearned in class.
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