LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 6
Languagedevelopment in young children is a complicated mechanism used toconverse different number of things. It is of great importance tounderstand the significance of early language development andacknowledge means and ways to facilitate infants as well as toddler’slanguage process. Parent and elders are believed to be the braindesigners of infants and toddlers.
Fromthe time of birth to age five,children develop communication ability at a faster rate. The processorstages that are involved in language development are common to allhuman beings. However, the times, age and speed at which every childattains full language development appear to be different amongchildren (Skinner, 2014). As a result, language development processcan only beputin comparison with generally accepted and set standards that havebeen approved and researched on. Ellis (2015)saysthat girls have natural ability todeveloplanguage at a remarkably faster rate compared to a boychild. Compared to other aspects of growth in children, languagedevelopment indeed reflects the growth as well as maturation ofchildren’s brain,and that is why for children who have reached the mark of five yearsface difficulties in learning languages.
Theability of the child to comprehend anddevelop language normally grows faster than the abilityto communicate. Universally, there are only two recognized mechanismsof language developments. The first one is inferential languagedevelopment (Skinner,2014). In this style,children begin by uttering words after which they learn how to jointhese individualwords together toform a sentence.For instance, forming a two-wordsentence, three-wordsentences and so on in their communication process. With regards toexpressive language development, young children start by utteringincomprehensible babblesthat imitate the pace and rhythms of adult speech. In most cases,children tend to combine all these two styles.
Accordingto Ellis (2015) language development starts before one is born.Towards the final stages of pregnancy, the unborn child begins tohear and listen to sounds which come from outside their mother’swomb. Infants are deeplyadjusted to the humanvoice and prefer that voice to other different voices.Notably,they prefer the sounds which seem to have higher pitchcharacteristics and which arealigned to females. They become very attentive to individuallooks and faces too, particularly when aperson istalking. Even though child’s cry is a way of communicating, theirlanguage development starts immediately through repetitions of wordsand mimicking. Eighteen-year-old children undergoes the followingprocesses of language development.
They are keen at recognizing the voices of their mothers.
They look down or give a smile when they are talked to.
Tend to look towards familiar sounds or human voices.
Produce sounds which seem to represent pleasure.
They make vowel sounds for instance, ah, ooh among others.
Butwhen children attain the age of about one year, they tend to performthe following. They look at the mouth of a speaker and turn theirface towards whoever is talking. They respond to tonal variations ofthe speakerby making sounds which include screeches, laugh, and sigh amongothers. Infants vary the shape of their mouth to communicate theirneeds and desires. On top of this, they start making sounds such asb,p,and m(Skinner, 2014).
Themaking of sounds and babbling among children is a stage of languagedevelopment which has appeared to be similar globally irrespective ofrace or ethnic community even for those who are deeplydeaf. Accordingly, all infants are born with a naturalability to learn any language in the world. In most cases,social interaction among them determines the kind of language theyeventually learn. Language development is also guided by parents whousually help children grow their knowledge in the language they(parents) prefer most.
FirstWords and Cultural Influences
InEnglish language, children begin by learning nouns. In this case, thechild begins by naming physical items. In some ethnic groups, whoselanguage iscenteredon verbs like Chinese, infants may start by learning verbs first(Yang, Crain, Berwick, Chomsky, & Bolhuis, 2017).In a culture like that of US,children could betaughtthe association that exists between objects and how they can assignnamesto these items inrelation tocolor, size, and texture.
Whenchildren turn one year old,they possess the ability to develop or to recall approximately fiftywords at once. However,when they become toddlers, they tend to have a vocabulary of abouttwo hundred words.At this stage,they begin to combine those wordsinto a telegraphic language, just like putting text messages togetherusing words to convey a message (Yang,Crain, Berwick, Chomsky, & Bolhuis, 2017).
Two-WordSentences, Telegraphic Text Message, and Speech
Whenchildren turn eighteen months old,they put words together and use them to make expressionssuch as Daddy,Mammy,or doggiecute. Inthis case, the words used by the child express meaning that he or sheunderstands. Additionally, other necessary parts of speech such asutilization of an article that punctuates or makes use of ameaningful sentence at this stage are omitted.(Yang,Crain, Berwick, Chomsky, & Bolhuis, 2017).
Accordingly,this type of expression depicted by a child at this age resemblestext messages in which incorrectlystructuredwords are used to convey messages. For instance, sentences likebabycomegetcup areevidently used instead of completeand grammatically correct sentence.
Thisis the stage where children tend to overstress consonants and vowelsounds by use of high pitched tones and employ facial expressions intheir communication (Skinner,2014).They do this to attract the attention of their listeners and oftenstart crying when listeners do not turn their attention in theirfavor.
Normally,before young children could learn how to write and read, they areexpected to establish a strong ability tohearsounds or voices from people they closely interact with. Mostly,phonological knowledge which consists learning rhyming words anddeveloping the ability to match sounds with words and letters is acommon language knowledge method in children development. The abilityto grow phonological knowledge especially in young children isboosted by playing with words and reading words out aloud.Repetition of rhyming words is also considered as a critical methodmostly used to promote child language development.
Ellis,R. (2015). UnderstandingSecond Language Acquisition 2nd Edition-Oxford Applied Linguistics.Oxford UniversityPress.
Skinner,B. F. (2014). Contingenciesof reinforcement: A theoretical analysis(Vol. 3). BF Skinner Foundation.
Yang,C., Crain, S., Berwick, R. C., Chomsky, N., & Bolhuis, J. J.(2017). The growth of language:Universal Grammar, experience, and principles of computation.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews.
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