Aleader is an individual who can direct his or her subjects andmotivate them to put their level best at their workplaces. There aremotivational theories that can be utilized by the leaders to guidethem in dealing with employees so as to achieve set organizationalgoals. The paper will focus on the expectant and three-dimensionaltheory of attrition and their application in the workplaceenvironment. It will also deal with the strengths and weaknesses, andlastly, the paper will give a summary of the motivational tools usedby leaders.
Thistheory suggests that people’s behavior is controlled by what theyexpect to happen in future. The anticipated consequences shape thedecisions we make. For instance, employees clock longer hours at workbecause of expected increase in their salaries. Also, the decisionsare influenced by the probability of occurrence of the outcomes. Thehigher the probability, the more likely the reward will materializeand the lower the probability, the lower the chances of the rewardsoccurring. Therefore, the perception the workers have of the outcomesis instrumental to determining their behavior. A reward that isassumed that it will happen will not motivate people to do their bestin their workplaces. On the other hand, a reward that is believed tooccur because of a promise made whether in writing or orally willmotivate people to work harder so as to reap the fruits of theexpected positive outcomes (Harvard Business School, 2017).
Threeelements are used to describe the theory which includesinstrumentality, valence, and expectancy. The first one is concernedwith the strong belief a person has of receiving a reward because ofperformance which surpasses the set target. Valence deals with thevalue that is put on the expected reward. Lastly, expectancy isconcerned with the achievement of the desired goal which correspondswith the amount of effort put. The effort put is determined by thelevel of difficulty encountered in the realization of the goals, theexperience and the self-confidence a person has. To sum it all, thetheory emphasizes on the fact that people are motivated to act orbehave in a manner that will result in the realization of the settargets if they believe that the reward is genuine and appeals totheir desires. On the other hand, people are not motivated if thereward does not appeal to their needs directly and therefore do notsee the need of working hard since their efforts will be wasted andthus not beneficial to them.
Applicationof the Theory in the Workplace
Thereare various workplaces, but the but the focus is on employees who areemployed in a company which specializes in creating goods andservices that require a lot of creativity and is technologicallycompetent. An example is a software company such as Google. Suchkinds of employees may need benefits that are beneficial to them suchas: being recognized for their work by acknowledging them for theirinput in the realization of for example software. Each employee ismotivated by how important the management staff perceive theircontribution in the company. The development process of softwareinvolves very many people who may develop an innovative idea in theform of a service that may result in exponential profits to thecompany. Therefore, such employees should be given pay rise, bonuses,and opportunities for career advancement by receiving promotions.Also, retreats organized by the firm will motivate the employees bygiving them an opportunity to enjoy life out of the workplaceenvironment. The foremost thing is to ensure that the reward offeredcoincides with the worker’s desires and that he believes that thecompensation will satisfy his needs at that particular time (HarvardBusiness School, 2017).
Three-DimensionalTheory of Attrition
Ingeneral, this theory is concerned with the meaning we give todifferent patterns of behavior. The theory suggests that people tryto understand the reason why we behave in a particular way. Accordingto Bernard Weiner, our behavior in future is determined by thereasons for doing something. For instance, a student who fails hisexam due to various factors. The same reasons for his failure willaffect his performance in future. Therefore, their motivation toperform better in exams will depend on how he handled the cause ofhis failure in the earlier reviews. According to Bernard Weiner, thecharacteristics of attrition are more significant than the specificattributions such as bad luck. There exist three aspects ofattributions that have a direct relationship with the motivation aperson can get in his future activities. The features includestability, the locus of control and controllability (Perma, 2017).
Thestability of an attribution refers to its tendency to remain constantover a period. For instance, a learner who fails an exam due to hislow intellectual ability will still fail the exam in future.Therefore, intellect is a stable characteristic. On the other hand,an unstable feature will change over time. Therefore, a stableattribution can sometimes lead to lower motivation in adversesituations such as failing an exam. A constant attribution such asperforming well in an exam is advantageous because it results inpositive expectations which ultimately lead to success in the futurebecause of the increased motivation. Locus of control deals with thespan of influence of a factor which can either be internal orexternal. In a situation where a student is doing an exam, he mayfail because he is not smart. On the contrary, if the studentbelieves that he failed the exam due to an external factor such as anincompetent teacher, he may improve in his future performance thushis motivation will be boosted. Another characteristic iscontrollability, which refers to a person’s ability to control asituation. An out of control situation may positively affect aperson’s motivation because he believes that he can do better ifthe situation is within his control. But an individual who believesthat he can do better and had he failed because he did not utilizehis time well, he will not be motivated to perform better in future(Perma, 2017).
Applicationin the Workplace
Aprogrammer in a software development company will be driven by thefeedback he or she receives about his work from his superiors.Employees should be told that they can do better and be guided on theway to go about it. Thus, workers will stop doubting themselves andbe laying blame on other areas such as insufficient skills.Therefore, an employee can apply other strategies to improve his orher performance. In a programming environment, sometimes the softwaredoes not work the way it was supposed to, and the employees may notbe motivated to look for solutions to the problem. A good leadershould give his feedback, whether positive or negative and provide away forward. Another method is to acknowledge employees forperforming better even though the set target has not been reached.Therefore, workers will divert their failure to other factors whichare in their control. Other controllable factors include the lack ofhard work.
MotivationalTools and Techniques
Apositive working environment will motivate employees to performbetter. This can be achieved through idea sharing and teamwork. Also,the managers should make Shure the employees have the required toolsto perform their work.
Settinggoals has an advantage of motivating employees because they setpersonal targets which they plan to achieve in a span of time. Theoverall achievement of individual goals of workers results in theoverall achievement of the organizational goals.
Incentivesare great tools to motivate employees to work hard. Financialincentives such as cash prices and non-financial incentives such as apreferred office place and the increase of vacation days help inmotivating individuals (The Coca-cola Company, 2014). A directrelationship between the company profits and the employee’s incomedrives the workers because their wages keep increasing. Involvingemployees in business project shows that you care about theiropinions and this helps in early detection of morale breakers.Lastly, employees would be given a chance to increase theireducational knowledge by sponsoring them to do further studies.Organizing seminars and workshops help in enriching the worker`sskills and experience (The Coca-cola Company, 2014).
Inconclusion, the key to success of any organization lies with themorale of the employees since they are the backbone of anorganization. Every organization has a workforce that is unique fromany other organization, and thus managers should ensure that themethods they use to improve their motivation are appropriate.
Perma. (2017, April 4). Retrieved from Changing Minds: http://changingminds.org/explanations/motivation/prema.htm
Why Your Employees Are Losing Motivation. (2017, April 2). Retrieved from HBS Working Knowledge. Harvard Business: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/5289.htm
The Coca-cola Company. 2014. "Annual report persuant to section 13." Washngton DC.
No related posts.