PostTraumatic Stress Disorder in Emergency Responders Scoping Study
Emergencyresponders need to have adequate information concerning the issuethey are responding to. According to Adams et al., (2013), there isvery limited literature concerning PTSD available to emergencyresponders thus hindering their efficiency. According to this study,PTSD is a fully developed type of traumatic stress that can only bediagnosed after the patient exhibits defining symptoms for at leastfour weeks (Adams et al., 2013). The study also reveals that thiscondition is not easily prevented. However, with the use ofestablished and validatedtreatment methods traumatic stress can becontained (Adams et al., 2013). The study further shows that effortsto contain traumatic stress are fragile specifically to healthemergency providers that require their employees to be exposed totraumatic situations with high risks. Also, there should be proactiveinstead of reactive management of PTSD because it is not onlyeconomical but also effective (Adams et al., 2013).
SpiritualFirst Aid: Disaster Chaplain Guide
Accordingto the manual published by the Humanitarian Disaster Institute, firstaid providers need to consider the spiritual beliefs of the people inneed of emergency services. Their Spiritual First Aid (SFA) isdesigned for use in a faith-based community (Aten &Boan, 2013).This manual shows that neither physical nor spiritual first aidshould prevent efforts of physical and mental healthcare ininterventions when needed. This guide aids first aid providers toidentify conventional emotional and spiritual reaction to disasters.SFA guidelines are meant to solve various types of issues in specificsituations by performing an accurate and quick assessment and findingpossible solutions to the specific needs identified (Aten &Boan,2013).
Publishedby the Australian Red Cross, the ‘psychological fist aid guide’is designated for individuals working in disaster response, recoveryand disaster preparedness. The guide gives a summary of the best waysin psychological first aid in the event of traumatic events anddisasters. According to this guide, psychological first aid is ahumane supportive response to another person who is affected orsuffering and may need help. It encompasses basic principles of helpto encourage natural recovery (Australian Red Cross, 2013). Itinvolves helping affected populations to feel safe, access emotionaland physical social support, be calm and hopeful so that they can beable to help themselves. According to the Australian first aidorganization, psychological first aid should be the first thing thatshould be done to families or individuals following a disaster. Thisis widely applied during the first hours, days or even weekspreceding an event (Australian Red Cross, 2013). The entire idea isbased on the general understanding that people faced with disastersdo experience a variety of early reaction that includes emotional,psychological and physical (Australian Red Cross, 2013).
PeerSupport and Crisis-Focused Psychological Intervention Programs inCanadian First Responders
Fireand rescue personnel, paramedics, the army, and police needpsychological intervention programs to help them deal with the traumathat comes with their work (Kok etal., 2012). According to Beshai andCarleton (2016), the first aid responders are frequently faced withviolence, death, and threats that expose them to psychological issuessuch as post-traumatic stress. In Canada, first responder agenciesoffer a stand – alone peer support program (Beshai & Carleton,2016). The main goals of these programs were facilitating theunderstanding of work related events and forecasting psychologicalwell-being of the affected workers. However, there is confusionamongst these agencies on what exact program should be used byvarious emergency support providers (Beshai & Carleton, 2016).This research recommends that there should be an increased educationabout the current state of evidence for these programs andstandardization of the implementation of such programs.
FirstResponders Trauma Intervention and Suicide Prevention
Accordingto the Center for Suicide Prevention, first responders are exposed tothe risk of experiencing both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)and acute stress disorder (ASD). Robert Olson who works at the Centerreveals that the number of trauma survivors and severity of traumathat first response providers experience is bigger than what it isthought. Many Trauma survivors end up in human services systems(Center for suicide prevention, 2013). This publication recommendspeer support innervations to workers who are affected by trauma.Moreover, compassion satisfaction, self-efficacy, collectiveefficacy, self-efficacy and sense of community are protective andresilient factors that prevent occurrences of trauma (Center forsuicide prevention, 2013).
AnnualReview of Nursing Research
Post-traumaticstress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder (ASD) are the majorissues faced by response and disaster management providers (Couig &Kelley, 2012). In this book, the writers reveal that in the line ofduty, these workers are faced with numerous traumatic scenes thatarise from events such as accidents. These factors have been citedto the reason why there are a rising number of mental illnessesamongst mental health providers (Couig & Kelley, 2012). The bookrecommends that first responders should be introduced to standardizedtrauma prevention programs to help them deal with any situation thatthey might encounter in the line of duty.
Identificationand description of the client Kennedy the Hispanic ambulance manproblem/ opportunity is clear.
Kennedyis a Hispanic paramedic assigned the task of getting patients fromaccident scenes to the hospital. His primary role involvesstabilizing patients when being taken to the hospital and informingthe medical staff on the condition of the patient so that they canprepare in advance to handle the emergency. In the five years that hehas held the job, the paramedic has seen several gruesome events,including people killed in cold-blood murder and car accident victimswith mutilated body organs. The events have made him suffer frompost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Consequently, he takesanti-depressants and sometimes alcohol to make him forget the grislyincidences he witnesses at on daily basis. In some cases, he screamsat night while asleep and claims that he had seen someone who diedwhen he was giving him, or succumbed to injuries when being ferriedto the hospital. His wife has also reported that he often havesuicidal thoughts. Besides, he occasionally swore that he would killanybody who wrongs him (IAED Staff, 2016). His supervisor recommendedthat he seeks assistance from skilled PTSD therapists because hebelieves he has psychological problems attributed to his jobenvironment.
SuicidePrevention: Suicide and First Responders’ Role
Accordingto the Illinois Department of health, many first aid responders arenot trained on the topic of mental illness. Many of them have no orlittle knowledge of the common signs of a suicidal person thus do notknow what to do when they come across someone exhibiting this signs.Moreover, first responders are crucial to the end results of anycrisis because they are the primary point of contact with theaffected people (Illinois Department of Public Health, 2014). Ifthese providers are prone to trauma, they might get overwhelmed inthe line of duty and fail to help the very people who are in need oftheir life-saving services.
PolicePsychology and Its Growing Impact on Modern Law Enforcement
Mitchell& Dorian in their book argues that police psychology is animportant part of police agencies that give support in areas such aspersonnel assessment, organizational intervention, and operationalassistance. Police units require personnel that are specialized inpsychological services and also handling critical incidents (Mitchell& Dorian, 2017). Due to the kind of work the police do, they arelikely to encounter situations that might turn to be a greatchallenge to their human qualities (Mitchell & Dorian, 2017). This article recommends that the police should be taken trough adisaster management program that will enlighten them on how theyshould handle various situations.
UNHCR’sMental Health and Psychosocial Support for Staff
TheUnited Nations High Commissioner for Refugees staff undergoes a lotof challenges in the line of duty. Walton Mitchell came up with amental and psychological support for these employees. According tothis publication, UNHCR humanitarians come in contact with numerouspsychological and mental health challenges. With the exposure totraumatic occurrences such as sexual assault, bombing it has becomeclear that chronic stress is inevitable amongst these workers (Cohenet al., 2012). It is recommended that volunteers and workers areclearly informed of what they are likely to come across and also howto prevent themselves from the effects of what they encounter(Walton, 2013).
Theoreticaland Best Practices Research
Thecognitive concept assesses the significance of thoughts and beliefsin shaping the behavior and values of an individual. Values are theethical codes that define rational articulation of one’s ideas ordeeds. Values aids in understanding why and how people behave as theydo in particular situations. The integration of expectations, goals,values, and links to cognitive and behavioral competencies arecrucial in assessing the emotional differences between man andanimals. Social reputation and identity are comprised of previousactions, perceived responses from people, and expected futurebehaviors. Norms and customs are internalized into habits,preferences, and expectations that are generalized across everydaysituations in a human being’s life. From the assessment results, itis clear that an individual uses his or her cognitive component toassess various situations. The essence is to assist in developingsolutions and responses to queries based on one’s reasoning.Emotional aspect also takes a critical role in influencing theresponses and self-esteem.
Thepersonality traits acquired by an individual distinguishes him/herfrom other individuals concerning behavior, thoughts, and viewpoints,among others. The personality adopted by a person is influenced bybiological, social, environmental and cultural factors. Ideally, theculture shapes the attributes of an individual and the society.Through the cultural influences, an individual acquires distinctattitudes, ethical values, and goals. The social and environmentalfactors affect the external choices of a person. Religion andeconomic status are some of the social factors that influence thedevelopment of a given attribute. The biological factors are theinherent attributes that an individual acquires genetically fromhis/her family lineage. Personality development is influenced by thebehaviors and decisions taken up by a person in the course of his orher life development. It starts early right from birth where anindividual picks the characters and social influences from thesurrounding environment.
Identifyingand Managing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Warneret al. (2013), in their article, illustrates the importance ofidentifying and managing post-traumatic stress. The article givesinformation on the most exposed individuals to PTSD. Medicalpractitioners and first responders to disasters rank high on thelist. Behavioral and mental health specialists are crucial to thetreatment process of the victims. Most importantly, identifying signsof PTSD in time will help in the prevention and the deterioration ofthe situation (Warner et al., 2013). The writer also recommends thatprevention is better than treating because there is no guarantee thattraumatic cases can be reversed.
Strengthsof Existing Interventions
Moderntrauma treatment approaches combine both pharmacotherapy andpsychotherapy treatment services. According to Warner, Warner,Appenzeller, and Hoge (2013), physicians are obliged to investigatewhether posttraumatic patients suffer from any comorbid illness.According to the study, the intervention of professional therapistsis essential as they can establish if a patient has mood and drugabuse issues. When these problems are identified, the sickindividuals are provided with medication and linked to support groupsthat help to decrease the chance of relapsing.
Firstresponders are psychologically prepared for the worst. Couig andKelley (2012) notes that the immediate interventions offered to thefirst responders monitor changes in emotional change. In the case aprofessional seems indifferent when they come across horribleaccidents or they panic at the sight of an accident site, the doctorsneed to help both of these people to control their emotions. Firstresponders should be able to empathize with the patients so that theycan provide professional services. However, they should refrain beingtoo much attached to the extent that they cannot offer assistance tothe injured. The present intervention seeks to ascertain thatmedical practitioners can deliver professional support regardless ofhow gruesome the situation on the ground appears.
Limitationsof Existing Interventions
Differentsituations on an individual have diverse changes hence, requirespecial approach to handling the situations. Lack of specializedtraining is identified as a major challenge that has largelycontributed to unmet their demands. It is appropriate to identifyproactive approaches that will help in mitigating for the occurrenceof problematic situations. There is also a problem of shortage ofworkforce to help in the social works outside the health facilities.The proposed inteventions ignore some important aspects such asreligious views that can assist in the development of appropriateinterventions.
Empiricalevidence from the studies does reveal the great importannce of usingreligion in counselling individuals with trauma. Over the years,religion and spirituality have gained significance in counselingpractice. In mental health, religious interventions influence peopletowards adopting certain beliefs and value that aid in overcomingpsychological challenges. Theological perspective can significantlyhelp in reducing the risk the factors. Typically, theology offersfundamental information through counseling that brings hope to thevictims. It helps in offering advice and guidance to the people atrisk of committing suicide. Faith enhances the inclusion ofnon-medical professionals in the formulation of suicide preventionmeasures (Couig&Kelley, 2012)
Problems/OpportunityIncluding Promising Research Design and Other Relevant InformationUnique to This.
Qualitativecase studies provide the most promising research designs. In thisapproach, the investigators note that post-traumatic stress disordercan be cured effectively through cognitive behavior and exposuretherapy. According to Adams, Davis, Brown, Filardo, and Thomson(2013), first responders learn best when they are trained usingbehavior and exposure therapy. Humans react uniquely when theywitness bloody scenes. Consequently, observing first responders whenhandling cases on the ground offers the best approach for trainers toselect the most suitable staff for such jobs.
Justas in the case of Warner et al. (2013), researchers Adams et al.(2013) recommend that the research approach adopted shouldincorporate professional intervention tools such as psychotherapy,psychological support, and trauma-focused pharmacotherapy for anindividual to get the desired outcome.
Vitctimsof PTSD may find difficulties in understanding or communicating theirissues to the right people. For assistance, the majority lack thecapacity to undertake the primary measure in seeking interventions(Warner,Warner, Appenzeller, & Hoge, 2013).The role of the psychologists providing direction and informing thepublic about PTSD cannot be underestimated. Community members need tobe notified about handling different individuals regardless of theirhealth and mental conditions (Walton-Mitchell, 2013). The societycontrols the way people think and perceives individuals with mentalchallenges. Execution of the common guidelines for the establishmentof responsive health guidelines should serve to inform them on thequandaries of other people. The training centers can act as placeswhere caregivers can create awareness throughout the society sincethey are more aware of the psychological torture, which affectedindividuals, go through. There are also opportunities in utilisingthe religious tenets to assist in the counselling process.
Statementsof Purpose Including Brief Statements Of How to Proceed With theIntervention of the Client
Theobjective of this study is to develop suitable techniques that firstresponders can adopt in the work environment to avoid developingpost-traumatic stress disorder. It is worth noting that theprofessionals work in a gross environment where they come acrossmutilated and rotting bodies now and then. The Illinois Departmentof Public Health (2014) describes how first responders can helpsuicide victims to overcome the desperation leading them to take awaytheir lives. Furthermore, the research explains various approachesthat medical professionals can follow when responding to anemergency. Regardless of whether an individual renders the service inthe capacity of a security officer or medical personnel, he or she isvulnerable to PTSD. Bomyea and Lang (2012) state that exposure totraumatic stressors features repeated experience of a given incident,hyper-arousal, withdrawal, and emotional numbing. On the long run, itcauses social damage and substantial non-performance at work. Incase people suffering from PTSD are not treated on time and using theright approaches, the society may incur high costs in the form oflost labor and potential damage the mentally sick people could cause.
Thereview offers some approaches that first responders can utilize whenresponding to a PTSD cases. According to Nauert (2016), victims oftraumatic events have brain regions that function abnormally. Theanomalous brain reasoning makes the individuals generalize incidencesand view them as the real ordeal. The study recommends thattherapists should target specific brain regions where the triggers ofcertain worrisome events emanate.Thegoal can attained conveniently through counseling and application ofpharmaceutical drugs to suppress emotions.
Conclusively,PTSD is a serious mental condition that often affects firstresponders. First responders need to be aware of the possibleconsequences of the work they do. Also, many of these crucial serviceproviders have no information regarding the traumatic situation theyencounter. However, many first responders such as the Red Cross haveendeavored to help their employees prepare for such occurrences.Providing appropriate treatment to the affected individuals iscrucial to prevent them from developing emotional detachment andskepticism.
Adams,B.D., Davis, S., Brown, A., Filardo, E.A. & Thomson, M.H.(2013).Post-TraumaticStress Disorder (PSTD) In Emergency Responders Scoping Study:Literature Review.Toronto: HumanSystems.
Aten,J. &Boan, D. (2013).Spiritualfirst aid: Disaster chaplain guide. Wheaton,IL: Humanitarian Disaster Institute, Wheaton College.
AustralianRed Cross (2013).PsychologicalFirst Aid: An Australian Guide to Supporting People Affected byDisaster.Victoria: Australia Red Cross.
Beshai,S. & Carleton, N. (2016).PeerSupport and Crisis-Focused Psychological Intervention Programs inCanadian First Responders: Blue Paper.University of Regina.
Bomyea,J., & Lang, A. J. (2012). Emerging interventions for PTSD: Futuredirections for clinical care and research. Neuropharmacology,62(2),607–616. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.05.028
Centerfor Suicide Prevention (2015).FirstResponders Trauma Intervention and Suicide Prevention.Centerfor Suicide Prevention.
Cohen,H., Liu, T., Kozlovsky, N., Kaplan, Z., Zohar, J., & Mathé, A.A. (2012). The neuropeptide Y (NPY)-ergic system is associated withbehavioral resilience to stress exposure in an animal model ofpost-traumatic stress disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology,37(2),350-363.
Couig,M. P., & Kelley, P. W. (2012).Annualreview of nursing research: Volume 30, 2012.New York: Springer Pub. Co.
IAEDStaff. (2016, July 14). Stress and the workplace. TheJournal of Emergency Dispatch.Retrieved fromhttps://iaedjournal.org/americans-with-disabilities-act-covers-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/
IllinoisDepartment of Public Health (2014).SuicidePrevention: Suicide and First Responders’ Role.Illinois: Illinois Department of Public Health.
Kok,B. C., Herrell, R. K., Thomas, J. L., & Hoge, C. W. (2012).Posttraumatic stress disorder associated with combat service in Iraqor Afghanistan: reconciling prevalence differences between studies.TheJournal of nervous and mental disease,200(5),444-450.
Mitchell,C., & Dorian, E. (2017).Policepsychology and its growing impact on modern law enforcement.Hershey: Information Science Reference.
Nauert,R. (2016). PTSD patients have different brain response to fear.PsychCentral.Retrieved fromhttps://psychcentral.com/news/2015/12/16/ptsd-patients-have-different-brain-response-to-fear/96304.html
Walton-Mitchell,E.C. (2013). UNHCR’sMental Health and Psychosocial Support for Staff.United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Warner,H.C., Warner, M.C., Appenzeller, G., & Hoge, W.C.(2013).Identifying and Managing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.AmericanFamily Physician,Vol. 88 (12).
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LITERATURE REVIEW 1
In research paperwriting, literature review refers to the critical analysis ofliterature or published sources that deal in a particular topic. Inthis respect, literature review gives an assessment of publishedsources through giving a summary of the sources, classification ofdifferent topics addressed in the sources, a comparison of differentsources, and an evaluation of the sources available. The literaturereview is for research purposes. At various education levels, aliterature review is included in such papers as an essay, researchreport, article, or thesis. The literature review follows the formatof a standard essay. This means that it has three components, whichinclude the introduction, body, and conclusion. However, it does notfollow any listing criteria like the annotated bibliography, whichgives a summary of every source listed (Rowe, 2014).
A literature reviewhas a variety of purposes. One of the literature review’s purposeis helping the student in establishing a theoretical framework for agiven subject area or topic. In this respect, the literature reviewenables a student to define terminologies, definitions, and termsthat are applicable in the topic of the research. The other purposeof the literature review is the identification of case studies,models, and past studies that support the research topic. This iscritical in the establishment and definition of the research topic.These purposes of the literature review aid the student to identifywhat a particular source reveals about the topic throughidentification of applicable theories. They also help the student toidentify how different authors carried out their research through theidentification of methodologies. In some research papers, there is aneed for the student to identify the need for future research. Inthis respect, the student use literature review to identify missingaspects of the research topic addressing how the current research andfuture research will fill the research gap (Machi & McEvoy,2016).
Machi, L. A., & McEvoy, B. T. (2016). The literature review:Six steps to success. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press,pp. 45 – 76.
Rowe, F. (2014). What literature review is not: diversity, boundariesand recommendations. European Journal of Information Systems,23(3), 241-255.
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