METHODS USED BY AMERICANS TO CONTROL THE MINORITY GROUPS IN THE 19TH
METHODSUSED BY AMERICANS TO CONTROL THE MINORITY GROUPS IN THE 19THCENTURY
CourseNumber: Course Name
Itis true that segregation has existed in America for an unprecedentedperiod. Guyatt1acknowledges that segregation has powerfully shaped the history ofthe America from the very beginning as majority of Americans like tothink about the establishment of American colonies as well as thefounding of the United States of America as if it was motivated bythe pursuit for freedom-initially, the religious freedom and latereconomic and political freedom. However, from the very beginning, theAmerican culture was equally grounded on the principles ofoppression, inequality, and brutal forms of domination which involvedsegregation of the minority groups such as the African-Americans,American-Indians, Hispanics, and Chinese people. Therefore, thispaper endeavors to analyze the methods used by white Americans tocontrol the minority groups in the later part of 19thcentury and how these minority groups responded.
First,the white Americans controlled forced integration of the minoritygroups by limiting their voting rights. The Fifteenth Amendment whicheventually became part of the constitution of the United States ofAmerica prohibited the state governments from denying people thevoting rights because of their race, color or their previouscondition of servitude2.However, after reconstruction, some states in the South got aroundthe amendment by enacting the poll taxes, which required that thevoters were to pay tax to vote. This meant that since majority ofminority groups were poor, they could not afford the poll tax fee andhence could not vote their representatives to leadership positions.Additionally, the white Americans controlled forced integration ofminority groups through the literacy tests and the grandfatherclause3.The states required that all voters were to pass a literacy testbefore being allowed to vote. Since majority of the minority groupshad been economically exploited and denied access to education, theliteracy test disqualified most of them as voters which meant thatthey could not elect their preferred leaders who could fight fortheir rights4.Similarly, the grandfather clause was also a way of preventingminority groups from participating in voting exercise because itallowed people to vote only if their ancestors had voted before theyear 1866. Since the Ancestors of the minority groups did not votebefore the year 1866, they were disqualified as voters.
Besides,white Americans controlled forced integration of minority groupsthrough new laws that forced segregation. This was made possiblethrough the Jim Crow laws which were based on the principle that ifsome elements of life were separated, then all elements of life wouldeventually become segregated which would impose an unnecessary burdento the American society5.In addition to the Jim Crow laws, some state courts ruled cases thatundermined the civil rights of the minority groups in the UnitedStates of America. For instance in the YickWo Vs Hopkins (1886), where Yick Wo wasconvicted for allegedly using a wooden laundry for over 22 yearswithout being licensed, an act that was against municipal law since18806.As a result, Yick Wo was denied the license by the board ofsupervisors after applying for it and the California State Courtruled the case in favor of the board of supervisors. This shows that,the white Americans through some state courts controlled forcedintegration of the minority groups in the country.
Nevertheless,the minority groups responded to segregation by forming politicalassociations, fraternal organizations, women’s clubs, and blacknewspapers. These minority groups did not often reach an agreementregarding the best strategies to achieve their objectives but theywere always united in their endeavors7.Some of the leaders like Booker T. Washington urged the minoritygroups especially the African-Americans to pursue economicadvancement8.This shows that some of the minority groups responded byaccommodating themselves to segregation by building reputations ashonest and hardworking citizens. Moreover, some minority groupleaders such as W.E.B Du Bois encouraged some minority group membersto embrace the spirit of abolitionist and demand for full andmandatory equality to avoid segregation9.Furthermore, the minority groups wrote many articles aimed atcondemning the mistreatment of minority groups such as the writingsof Well-Barnett that was published in newspaper FreeSpeech in Memphis Tennessee. Most ofthe writings by Well-Barnett attacked the practice of lynching thatwas happening in the South10.
Inconclusion, it is quite clear that white Americans used various waysto control forced integration of minority groups in America justbefore the end of the 19thcentury. As such, they limited their voting rights and implementedlaws that forced segregation. However, the minority group membersresponded to segregation by accommodating themselves to segregation,embracing the spirit of abolitionist and writing articles innewspapers to condemn mistreatment of minority groups.
GertrudeBonnin, Zitkala-Sa. "American Indian Stories (1921)". Thereis no great there is no small in the mind that causeth all(1921).
"BookerT. Washington Delivers The 1895 Atlanta Compromise Speech".Historymatters.Gmu.Edu. Last modified 1895. Accessed April 12,2017. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/39/.
Guyatt,Nicholas. Bind Us Apart: How Enlightened Americans Invented RacialSegregation. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.
Price,Robert L. Things You Never Knew Or Were Told Not To Believe:Unknown Facts About. 1st ed. IUniverse, 2012.
Rodriguez,Junius P. Encyclopedia Of Emancipation And Abolition In TheTransatlantic World. 1st ed. Routledge, 2015.
Walton,Hanes, Donald Deskins, and Sherman Puckett. The African AmericanElectorate. 1st ed. 328-329: Sage, 2012.
Wells-Barnett,Ida B. "Southern Horrors". New York Age (1892).
"YickWo V. Hopkins (1886)". Media.Pearsoncmg.Com. Lastmodified 1886. Accessed April 12, 2017.http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/history/MHL/US/documents/Yick_Wo_v_Hopkins.html.
1 Nicholas Guyatt, Bind Us Apart: How Enlightened Americans Invented Racial Segregation, 1st ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).
3 Hanes Walton, Donald Deskins and Sherman Puckett, The African American Electorate, 1st ed. (328-329: Sage, 2012).
5 Robert L. Price, Things You Never Knew Or Were Told Not To Believe: Unknown Facts About, 1st ed. (IUniverse, 2012).
6 "Yick Wo V. Hopkins (1886)", Media.Pearsoncmg.Com, last modified 1886, accessed April 12, 2017, http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/history/MHL/US/documents/Yick_Wo_v_Hopkins.html.
7 Zitkala-Sa Gertrude Bonnin, "American Indian Stories (1921)", There is no Great there is no Small in the mind that causeth all (1921).
8 "Booker T. Washington Delivers The 1895 Atlanta Compromise Speech", Historymatters.Gmu.Edu, last modified 1895, accessed April 12, 2017, http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/39/.
9 Junius P. Rodriguez, Encyclopedia Of Emancipation And Abolition In The Transatlantic World, 1st ed. (Routledge, 2015).
10 Ida B. Wells-Barnett, "Southern Horrors", New York Age (1892).
No related posts.