Middle Range Theories
Thereare some resemblances between the caring and the comfort theory. Boththeories involve continuous patient assessment for theireffectiveness and seek to identify and satisfy the needs of patients.There are several differences as well. During the implementation ofthe theory of caring, the nurse focuses on showing the client that heor she is emotionally present, whereas, during the implementation ofthe theory of comfort, the nurse’s focus is on enhancing thecomfort of the patient. In the theory of caring, the nurse usessequential processes created by their philosophical attitude, and theintended outcome is the clients’ well-being or wholeness. In thecomfort theory, the nurses continually assess and strive to improvetheir clients’ comfort levels, and the expected result is theenhanced comfort of the patient (Kolcaba, 2015).
InKristen’s theory of caring, the meta-paradigm of nursing is theinformed caring for the well-being of others. The meta-paradigm ofthe environment is any context that influences or receives theinfluence of the designated client (Watson, 2012). In Kolcaba’stheory of comfort, the meta-paradigm of nursing is the intentionalevaluation of the patient’s comfort needs, designing of the comfortinterventions required to address those requirements, and areassessment of their comfort levels after implementing compared witha baseline. The meta-paradigm of the environment all the aspects ofthe patient, their family, or institutional setting that the nurse,loved one, or institution can manipulate to enhance the patient’scomfort.
Boththe postpartum and uncertainty in illness theory seek to identify andaddress health issues early before their impact becomes severe. Boththeories aim at singling out patients who are at a high risk ofconditions such as depression and giving them specialized care. Thereare several differences. The postpartum theory employs the earlyintervention for symptoms of postpartum depression or the preventionof its onset, while the uncertainty in illness theory bases itsassessment on the patient’s positive adaptation to the sicknessexperience. The former’s implementation involves targetinterventions to reduce risk based on identifying modifiable riskfactors, whereas the latter strives to impact antecedents andappraisals of uncertainty, and coping with change.
Thepostpartum depression theory’s metaparadigm describes the personregarding wholeness with biological, sociological, and physiologicalaspects. Its metaparadigm of health is not clear. Traditional ideasviewed physical and mental health because of their responses to thecontexts of their environments. The uncertainty in illness theory’smeta-paradigm of person is an ill individual, their parent, or theirfamily. The patient is a biopsychosocial being who is an open systemexchanging energy with the environment. The theory defines itsmeta-paradigm of health in the context of the disease experience.This concept of health is congruent with the formation of a new lifeview and probabilistic thinking.
Oneof the assumptions of the postpartum depression theory as relating topersons is that the human brain can biochemically store stressors.Also, women have a unique brain and hormonal chemistries that causethem to be vulnerable to mood disorders. The theory states thatpostpartum depression results from biopsychological, economic,social, and economic life stressors. The context of health isnecessary for nurses to understand any health issue. In theuncertainty in illness theory, people are biopsychosocial systemsthat usually function in far-from-equilibrium states. This theorysuggests that considerable fluctuations in one’s state affect theiradaptability to change, uncertainty is the inadequacy of the mind tosupport the perception of the sickness experience, and that it isneither positive nor negative until appraisal (Liehr, & Smith,2017).
Kolcaba,Katharine (2015). Katherine Kolcaba’s comfort theory. Nursingtheories and nursing practice, 381-391.
Liehr,P., & Smith, M. J. (2017). Middle Range Theory: A Perspective onDevelopment and Use. Advancesin Nursing Science, 40(1),51-63.
Watson,J. (2012). Humancaring science(1st ed.). Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning.Topof Form
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