Simply put, motivation is thedriving power behind every individual`s actions. Motivated personswork hard towards their needs. Similarly, motivated employees aremore creative and productive than those who are not. They also tendto enjoy their jobs more and have reduced stress levels. Employers,as well as managers, often strive to discover ways to motivate theiremployees. Behavioural psychologists have come up with severaltheories about motivation in a bid to more understand and regulatehuman behaviour (Pegler, 2012). This paper will provide a discussionof the basic theories of motivation as well as their description.
Several theories of motivation havebeen developed over time that can assist people to get the most outof their employees. These theories are the Carrot and stick, thehierarchy of needs and the motivation-hygiene theory. The Hierarchyof needs theory was established by a psychologist, Abraham Maslow,and it asserts that people are motivated by their needs. The theorycategorises human needs into five, starting from basic to the need ofself-actualization. According to Abraham, once one need is met, aperson pursues to reach the next level. When Applied to business, thetheory suggests that an employer needs to identify the need levels ofthe employees to tell what is likely to motivate them (SCHELLER,2015).
Motivation-hygiene theory wasdeveloped by Frederick Herzberg in 1958. The theory hypotheses thatvarying factors in the work setting leads to either satisfaction ordissatisfaction, Fredrick calls these "hygiene" factors.Examples of factors that result in satisfaction are advancement,recognition and achievement, while those leading to dissatisfactioninclude salary, work conditions and relationships. According to thetheory, the supervisors should be in a position to effectively manageall of these factors so as to successfully motivate their employees(Pegler, 2012).
Carrot and Stick is a traditionallymotivated theory, created by Jeremy Bentham and it dates back to theindustrial revolution of the 1800s. The theory narrows downmotivation to two simple components: incentives and fear. Accordingto this theory, people are motivated by the aspiration to be rewardedmore or the need to be praised. While some individuals or employeesact out of fear, for example of punishment (Sharma, 2012).
Motivation is the driving powerbehind every individual`s actions. Motivated persons work hardtowards their needs. Similarly, motivated employees are more creativeand productive than those who are not. Job satisfaction andmotivation are closely related. Researchers have come up withseveral theories about motivation in trying to understand more andcontrol human behaviour. They include the Carrot and stick, hierarchyof needs, as well as the motivation-hygiene theory.
Pegler, C. (2012). Herzberg,hygiene and the motivation to reuse: Towards a three-factor theory toexplain motivation to share and use OER. JournalOf Interactive Media In Education, 2012(1), 4.
SCHELLER, D. (2015). NeighborhoodHierarchy of Needs. JournalOf Urban Affairs, 38(3),429-449.
Sharma, R. (2012). MotivationThrough Incentives: From FCHVs` Perspectives. HealthProspect, 10(0).
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