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Genderroles can be defined as the distinct personality traits, attitudes,behaviors, interests, and mannerisms that are considered eitherfemale or male by someone’s culture. They are hugely an outcome ofthe manner in which an individual was raised, but they may notconform to the gender identity of the person (Nashn. p).According to Nash (n. p), studies portray that both the environmentand genetics have a large influence on the development of genderroles. Notably, these gender roles change with the changes insociety, to meet the changing needs of the society. As such,throughout history, gender roles have changed in myriad ways. Forinstance, Nash (n. p) says that the little girls in the 1950s couldwear gloves and pastel organdy dresses when going to church.Notwithstanding, things changed in the 1970s and 1960s, and womenbegan wearing patched jeans (Nashn. p).Importantly, every generation that comes brings about variousexpectations regarding the manner in which males and females ought toact in the society. Nonetheless and despite such changes, there stillexist several norms of behavior in the society for women and men.
Genderroles are usually personal and cultural. They determine the manner inwhich men and women should dress, speak, think, and even interact inthe society context. When it comes to the shaping of these genderroles, learning plays an impeccable role. It is vital to note thatthe gender schemas are deeply integrated frameworks concerning theaspects that define feminine and masculinity. Nevertheless, thesocializing agents may also impact on gender roles. Such includemovies, peers, teachers, books, religion, parents, and television("GenderRoles Research Paper Starter – the Enotes.Com" n.p). These often teach as well as reinforce the gender roles allthrough the lifespan of an individual where the parent impacts theutmost influence, particularly on the young ones.
Accordingto the sociologists, the adults usually treat and perceive the femaleand male toddlers distinctively ("GenderRoles Research Paper Starter – the Enotes.Com" n.p). Parents do that because of the way they received their genderexpectations while they were young. In the past, the fathers used toteach their male kids how to build and fix things. The mothers, onthe other hand, taught the young girls how to keep the house clean,sew, and cook. After that, the children would receive approval fromtheir parents when they adopt the roles that are conventional andculturally acceptable, and conform to the expectations of gender("GenderRoles Research Paper Starter – the Enotes.Com" n.p). The reinforcement will then come from the other agents ofsocialization like media. What this means is that the learning ofgender roles usually happen in a social context where the values arepassed from parents and the society to the progenies of thesequential age bands.
Itis worth noting that the gender roles which are adopted in thechildhood are usually carried into adulthood. In the homes, personshave particular presumptions concerning the bearing of children,making decisions, and financial responsibilities, among others.Conversely, at the workplace, individuals have certain conjecturesconcerning power, organizational structure, and division of labor.Nonetheless, all these do not imply that gender roles are bad orgood they just exist. Presumably, the gender roles are the realitiesin the life of almost everybody.
Inwestern societies, the gender roles have been rapidly changing in therecent past. Such changes can be attributed to the societalevolutionary changes and the pressure that call for societal changesaway from the social structure of a long time ago. The evolutionarychanges comprise of the shifts in the economy that have changed themanner in which people work, as more and more ladies join theofficial white collar jobs.
Thesocialization process comprises of gender relations. It(socialization process) is the process of initiating the younggeneration by the society teaching and educating them concerningsome values, and imparting them with the acceptable patterns ofbehavior ("GenderRoles Research Paper Starter – the Enotes.Com" n.p). In the United States, such roles have been in a flux state overthe past years. As a result, men and women can currently be observedas having expounded on their roles. Women are currently entering theareas dominated by men, while the males are entering the fields thatare widely dominated by women. Media and pop culture have greatlyinfluenced the youth. Currently, some celebrities and superstarscontinually put aside the norms of the society and embrace theirindividuality despite the fact that they are in the eye of thepublic. For instance, Jaden Smith recently put on a skirt and a rosebehind his ear in public (Sakirin. p).Jaden wears anything he likes whether there are cameras or not, sincehe does not care about femininity and masculinity. Similarly, TroyerSivan dresses in an androgynous manner (Sakirin. p).He has amazing curls, pastel sweaters, and his nails are shiny andmanicured.
Genderroles happen right from a tender age from the introduction of colorsand toys to children. The blue color is usually used for the boychild, whereas the pink color is associated with a girl child. Thelittle girls cannot be given toys such as guns or football, while theyoung boys cannot be introduced to cooking stations or baby dolls. Itis good to hold on the idea that women are not supposed to be seen assexual objects. As such, activists should fight for the women to havea choice, just like men. With such, the ladies can choose to dress ina comfortable way, rather than to insist that they should dress in acertain manner. They can expose any part of their bodies in thefashion they decide on. Contrastingly, the activists insist thatladies should cover their bodies so that they can be respected, andnot be viewed as sex objects. In this manner, the activists will betrying to push the women back into those years when they could bearrested for exposing an ankle (Nashn. p).On the contrary, the male gender is not restricted from walking withjust a pair of Speedos. Also, no one despises them by saying thatthey are letting down the male gender.
Toconclude, it is apparent that gender roles exist. These roles aredeeply embedded, and are currently not fair despite the fact thatpeople are attempting to make them fairer. Nonetheless, the femalegender is currently being repressed instead of being given the samefreedom of choice as that given to men. Outstandingly, the publicsees change in a gradual manner than the gender roles reality. Assuch, their change will continue to be slow as long as they go onacculturating the children with the unchanged sexual stereotypes thathave prevailed for too long. Therefore, it is paramount that thegender stereotyping issue should be addressed right from childhood.Parents should demonstrate a different perception of sexual andgender roles. Also, churches and schools should contribute infighting the old stereotypes regarding gender, so as to favor themost equitable and favorable ways of viewing men and women.
Nash,Joy. “Gender Roles in Modern Society” N.p., 2017. Retrieved fromhttps://www.oneworldeducation.org/gender-roles-modern-society. Accessed 9 Apr. 2017.
Sakiri,Raveena. "12 Celebrities Who Broke the Gender Roles, And HOW! |Filter Copy". FilterCopy.N.p., 2017. Retrieved fromhttp://www.filtercopy.com/posts/12-celebrities-who-broke-gender-roles-and-how. Accessed 9 Apr. 2017
Topics,Research, and Gender Roles. "Gender Roles Research Paper Starter– the Enotes.Com". eNotes.N.p., 2017. Retrieved fromhttps://www.enotes.com/research-starters/gender-roles. Accessed 9 Apr. 2017.
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Therates of poverty in the U.S increased over the past decade, a trendthat is attributed to the Great Recession and its implications. Bythe year 2010, slightly over 45 million were under the U.S povertyline. As such, putting the United States of America and its povertyexperience in an international context is impeccable. Moreover, it isparamount to compare the income distribution and lower end of wagesin the U.S with other countries that fall under similar GDP for everyhour worked. Nonetheless, the U.S has been seen to rank relativelylow as compared to other developed nations regarding the assisting ofthe poor.
FromFigure F (Gouldand Wething n. p),the plots are used to compare the transfer poverty rates and pre andpost-tax of the U.S and that of its peer countries. From that, it isnotable that the U.S reduced the poverty rate by 9.7%, but whencompared to the peer countries, it is apparent that it did not reducethe rate of poverty significantly. Thus, it can be said that Americais ranked relatively low than its peer countries because its tax andtransfer system does not do much when it comes to the reduction ofthe poverty rate. As opposed to the U.S, the programs of tax andtransfer in France enabled it to lower the rate of poverty from 32.6%all the way to 7.2%. Apparently, France managed to lower its rate ofpoverty by 25.4%. As such, the redistributive programs of Francemanaged to reduce its poverty level two and half times as much asthat of America. Also, the average effect (un-weighted average) thetax and transfer programs of the peer nations is a reduction ofpoverty rate of 17.4% (Gouldand Wething n. p).Notably, this effect is almost two times more than what the programsof the U.S produce. On the same regard, Figures G and F depict thatthe peer nations are more probable to step in where the labor policyand markets fail so as to lift their poor citizens out of povertythan the United States of America. That means that the U.S is rankedrelatively low than the peer countries because it is less likely tostep where the markets and the labor policy have failed, to upliftits citizens from poverty.
Anotherreason why America is ranked relatively low than other peer countriesis attributed to the system of social welfare. The social welfare ofthe United States greatly varies from that of her peer countries. Thesocial welfare expenditure of the U.S uses both the private and thepublic resources while in the peer countries such as those in Europethe social welfare draws only on the public resources. For instance,the healthcare expenditure of the U.S targets the low-income earnersand the elderly while the working and the middle classes dependsolely on the health insurance offered by the employer. Therefore,this implies that the system of health care in the U.S is moreredistributive as compared to that of its peer nations.
Inconclusion, it is hard to make the comparisons regarding the levelsof poverty in various nations. The reason is that various countrieshave various currencies, prices for goods and services, levels ofincome, patterns of consumptions, among others. Nonetheless, Americaremains ranked relatively as compared to the peer countries. Onereason for this is that it does so little to reduce the rates ofpoverty. Second, it is because the U.S uses both the public and theprivate resources when calculating the social welfare, while thepeers only use the public sector.
Gould,Elise, and Hilary Wething. "U.S. Poverty Rates Greater, SafetyNet Weaker Than In Peer Countries". EconomicPolicy Institute.N.p., 2017.http://www.epi.org/publication/ib339-us-poverty-higher-safety-net-weaker/. 8 Apr. 2017.
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TheMartian isthe novel full of science and fiction. The piece was authored by AndyWeir, as his debut book. In the year 2011, Weir published the book byhimself, under his own name. Nonetheless, the Crown Publishers boughtthe rights of the novel and released it again in the year 2014. Theflow of the story follows Mark Watney, an American astronaut who getsstranded on the planet Mars, in the year 2035, and thus, has to comeup with survival techniques (Weir 35). As such, the core intention ofthis paper is to dissect the content of the story, share my opinionconcerning the book, and narrate whether I have been in the similarsituation as that of Mark Watney or not.
Whatthe Story Was About
Thestory by Weir is about a group of astronauts (Ares 3 Mission) whotour the planet Mars. Among the group was Mark Watney, an individualwho became stranded after a storm hit them. The members of his crewthought that Mark had died after discovering that his suit was losingpressure (Weir 55). They thus evacuated the planet leaving himbehind. Notwithstanding, Mark survives in a miraculous manner, onlyto find out that others had left, abandoning him alone. As such, heis forced to find a way of surviving as well as rationing his food sothat he can stay until the following planned tour to Mars, which wasafter two years. Mark believes that he is the first person to land onMars and that he probably, will be the first being to perish on thesame planet. He, however, refuses to starve to death despite thedamaged equipment, and the unforgiving environment instead, uses hisengineering skills and ingenuity as his sources of strength to live.Unbelievably, he plants food and even finds a way of contacting NASAback on Earth. He overcomes the tough challenges one after the otherand lastly gets rescued while still alive.
WhatI learned from the MartianNovel
FromWeir’s novel, I learned that determination and committed areparamount for the success of a person. The author created a characterwho has an unyielding will, and who never believes in giving up. Suchtraits are important for any person because we all at times findourselves in situations that are too tough to handle. I have thuslearned that if I do not allow myself to quit, I might conqueranything that could have seemed impossible. Through Mark Watney, Weircreated a character that has a realistic trait, positive attitude,and wisdom (Weir 53). Although I cannot relate the situation of beingstranded on Mars to any other situation, one can easily relate to theemotions of Mark. He accepts the situation as it is but does notchoose to quit as an option. Even when in the situations and momentsthat appear impossible to handle, he hatches either a hilariousremark or a witty comeback. Therefore, apart from Weir’squestionable interpretations, his piece of literature captures whatit looks like to be in a tricky situation.
TheMartian isscientific as well as a fiction book authored by Andy Weir. The bookis about Mark, an astronaut who was left on the planet Mars bymembers of his crew after being hit by a storm. Despite the grimmoments, Mark chooses not to give up, and in the end, he gets rescuedby the members of NASA. Although I have never been in a similarsituation like that of Mark, the character lends me some of theunique traits that I can use when such happens to me.
Weir,Andy. Martian:Classroom Edition.Place of publication not identified: Broadway Books,
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