No Child Left Behind Statute
NoChild Left Behind Statute
Introductionand Historical Context
Asan update of the Elementary and Secondary Law, the No Child LeftBehind Statute was written under the direction of Senator Ted Kennedyand signed into law by President George W. Bush in 2002 (Rudalevige,2003). The primary concern was that the country`s school system was notcompeting favorably internationally. NCLB was developed through thecollaboration of the Bush Administration and the bipartisan congresssupport. Their objective was to make the districts that receivedfederal funds more accountable. More so, it focused on ensuring thatacademic institutions and states boost the performance of particularstudents such as English Language Learners (ELLs). Under the NCLBAct, all states are expected to test students` reading and mathgrades once they are in high school. The Every Student Succeeds Actreplaced the NCLB after the Congress passed it in 2015 (Mathis& Trujillo, 2016).
The statute required that schools submit the results for English learners, racial minorities, and students from low-income families.
Each state was to make sure that learners were able to tackle the tests provided by the 2013-14 academic year, although the states decided the type of tests they used. In 2015 most states failed to get students over the proficiency limit. States are also required to address issues regarding special students to make sure they have the same learning opportunity as others.
Under the ESSA Act, institutions were kept on track towards their objectives through an instrument branded ‘Adequate Yearly Progress’ (AYP). Academic institutions that did not comply with the law were identified as not ‘making AYP` and were subjected to sanctions.
Districts were supposed to organise for screening of teachers for quality.
TheAct has had an enormous effect on learning and school improvementsince 2002. It brought about a significant development by introducingthe condition for electronic transmission of records. This was mainlydone for migrant students and it has been effective in managinginformation regarding the learners. A country needs to have a generalframe that acts as a determinant of where students should be onaverage. The standardized tests, which are an obligation of the NCLBlaw, set a standard level of achievement for each category ofstudent. Studies have shown that few people supported the law.Parents and administrators did not recommend it, although politicianslove it. Public officials recommended it since it allowed them toembrace high standards without prescribing a solution or give anexplanation on the specific strategies that would be used by theschools to succeed. The law sought to address the challenges that thecountry`s education sector was facing. More so, it was implemented topressure state and local officials to come up with ways to reinventthe country`s educational landscape. The remedies regarding lowperformance improved the situation. Most learners have failed to takeadvantage of the law by transferring to other schools or applying forfree tutoring. Independent School Districts have the difficult taskof screening the teachers for quality. More so, districts such asChicago have decided to offer their education services. The law hasnot been sufficiently funded. Legislators who developed the act hadcalled for an increase in education spending, but the budget remainsthe same.
Mathis,W. J., & Trujillo, T. M. (2016). EVERY STUDENT SUCCEEDS ACT.
Rudalevige,A. (2003). No Child Left Behind. Nochild left behind.
PublicSchool Statute of Texas
. The main objective of the statute was to allow for gaging and settingaside of 16,512 acres of property to build public schools in eachcounty in the state (Birkland,2014).In 1845, as a constitutional requirement, one-ninth of the state`sincome was to be set aside annually to support free education inpublic schools. The statute was rewritten in 1884. There was arecreation of the office of the superintendent. More so, the advalorem tax was declared, and to increase income the PermanentSchool Fund was invested in bonds. After around 100 years, thecitizens, voted to approve an amendment to the constitution toprovide for the guarantee of the public schools` borough bonds by thePermanent School Fund Currently, bonds that are appropriatelyallotted by a school district are generated entirely by the CorpusFund, on the approval of a commissioner of education. The PermanentSchool Fund creates and provides almost $700 million annually tonative school districts (Alhashel,2015).
The 74th legislature of the Texas State passed the Senate Bill 1 which reverted more experts to native school districts. Also, the governor was given the authority to hire the commissioner.
As a substitute to traditional public schools, districts are now establishing open enrollment charter schools. Today, there are more than 190 operating charter schools which do not have to comply with all the provisions of the education code.
It is a requirement of the Texas law that students are provided with a more rigorous curriculum and requirements for graduation.
In 1993, ‘new legislation’ that was intended to level the funding system for schools in Texas was passed. Legislators put in force the Senate Bill 7 to ensure that all schools had an equal amount of property wealth per student.
Districts whose wealth amounts exceeded the set limit had to devise ways to give away part of the money. They could merge their tax bases with districts whose property wealth was small, take some of the money to the state, or contract to educate students from different regions.
Thefree education program that emanated from the law opened doors to allchildren, regardless of their social, political, and economicbackground, to be able to go to acquire education. Due to theconstitutional principles, and the existence of balance in theinterests of citizens, every learner has gained legal academic right.More so, the state of Texas has put in place measures to guaranteethat every student has access to the same amount of wealth. Thevarious changes that have been completed by the law have made it moreefficient. More funds are available for school districts in the statedue to investments in bonds. More so, the quality of education inpublic schools is rising as a result of the incorporation of a morerigorous curriculum in the schools. More amendments need to be madeby the statute to ensure that all challenges facing school districtsare reduced to manageable levels.
Alhashel,B. (2015). Sovereign Wealth Funds: a literature review. Journalof Economics and Business.
Birkland,T. A. (2014). Anintroduction to the policy process: Theories, concepts, and models ofpublic policy making.Routledge.
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