Oppositional Defiant Disorder
OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER 1
Oppositionaldefiant disorder is a condition where a child displays a continuouspattern of argumentative or defiant behavior, irritable or angrymood, and vindictiveness toward authoritative figures in their lives.This behavior disrupts the normal activities of the child at home andschool. Most children that have oppositional defiant disorder alsoportray other behavioral abnormalities including anxiety disorders,mood disorders, learning disabilities, and attention deficitdisorder. Some of the children with oppositional defiant disorder arelikely to develop conduct disorder in the future. There are a numberof treatment and intervention therapies available for treatingoppositional defiant disorder. This research will analyze andevaluate different treatment and intervention therapies used foroppositional defiant disorder patients.
Treatmentand Intervention Therapies
Cognitivebehavioral therapy is one of the treatment models used for addressingoppositional defiant behavior in children and teenagers. This isapplicable on children and teenagers who can reflect on their ownemotions and make sense of them. Cognitive behavior therapy helps thechildren to learn and perceive what alters their behavior and why.For instance, a child suffering from oppositional defiant behaviorgets help in understanding what triggers their attitude towardsfigures of authority in their lives. It is influential in ensuringthat the child can think their way out of anger when they face asituation that triggers the anger. The child or teenager getopportunities for creating an action plan for taking appropriateactions when faced with stressing situations. The therapist isresponsible for guiding the child in creating a list of options whenthey face a stressful situation. Cognitive behavior therapy is alsoapplicable in different mental disorders that are associated withoppositional defiant disorder. However, this method is not applicableto children or people who cannot differentiate between their normalbehaviors and abnormal behaviors. For instance, a child who does notunderstand that they are behaving irrationally cannot create optionsthat will counter his irrational behavior (Hawes et al., 2014).
Anotherintervention therapy is the dialectical behavior therapy, which isapplicable in treating oppositional defiant disorder. The worddialectical means the description of how a mental health patientlearns to have opposing truths in their brains and how they can dealwith the emotions and discomforts associated with the opposingtruths. It is important to note that children and teenagers diagnosedwith oppositional defiant disorder are notable for being aggressiveand angry towards authority. Their behaviors are also associated withbad moods, vindictiveness, and defiance. Using DBT to treat thesedisorders has a positive influence on the child’s conditionincluding the fact it can also deter future extreme behaviordisorders that may lead to dire consequences such as suicides. Thetreatment is not overly reliant on self-examination and analysis butfocuses more on tolerating stress and calming oneself withoutoveracting. A child with oppositional defiant disorder is likely beoveracting to stressful situations, which manifests itself inbehavioral disorders that affects their lives. DBT is an effectivetherapy that benefits children and teenagers through teaching skillsof self-control, accurately understanding conflicting ideas, and useof communication instead of defiance. However, this interventiontherapy is only applicable in children and teenagers who havecognitively developed to such an extent that they understand theirattitudes towards different situations (Valentine et al., 2015).
Parent relatedtherapies are also effective methods of treating oppositional defiantdisorder. The two most notable interventional therapies associatedwith parents include parent training and parent-child interactiontherapy. In parent training, an experienced therapist helps indeveloping parenting skills characterized by being more positive andless frustrating for both the parent and the child. In this way,parents of children suffering from oppositional defiant disorder getthe opportunity of learning how to deal with the children’scondition and how to improve their behaviors. On the other hand,parent-child interaction therapy involves coaching parents wheninteracting with their children. This therapy results with theparents getting parenting techniques that are more efficient. Thisefficient parenting techniques eventually results with the parentbeing capable of reinforcing their children’s positive behavior.The primary advantage of parent related therapies is that they createan environment where the child can improve his or her relationshipwith parents, which subsequently reflects on their relationship withother members of the society. These therapies are also applicable inchildren who have not fully developed their cognitive abilitiesbecause they associate the parent who will eventually create anenvironment for positive behavioral change (Booker et al., 2016).
The differenttreatments and intervention therapies highlighted in this researchpaper are effective. However, it is important to note that there is aneed for the therapist, parent, and guardians to understand how eachtreatment operates to enhance its efficiency in addressing theproblem. Involving the child in finding the right treatment iscritical because it will help them to become independent in theirbehavioral change. Parents are also critical in the treatment processbecause they are capable of creating the right environments for thechild to adjust their behaviors.
Booker, J. A., Ollendick, T. H., Dunsmore, J. C., & Greene, R. W.(2016). Perceived Parent–Child Relations, Conduct Problems, andClinical Improvement Following the Treatment of Oppositional DefiantDisorder. Journal of child and family studies, 25(5),1623-1633.
Hawes, D. J., Price, M. J., & Dadds, M. R. (2014).Callous-unemotional traits and the treatment of conduct problems inchildhood and adolescence: A comprehensive review. Clinical childand family psychology review, 17(3), 248-267.
Valentine, S. E., Bankoff, S. M., Poulin, R. M., Reidler, E. B., &Pantalone, D. W. (2015). The use of dialectical behavior therapyskills training as stand‐alonetreatment: A systematic review of the treatment outcome literature.Journal of clinical psychology, 71(1), 1-20.
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