SearsHolding Corporation is an integrated retailer located in the state ofIllinois, and it is the owner of Sears ad Kmart store brands. Thecompany has an estimated 1,500 retail stores that it operates in andout of the country. It is a company that started with a bang, andappeared to be heading towards the right direction until things tooka new turn. It had started investing in new and overwhelmingly largerstores, commonly known as Sears Grand. Sears also invested heavilyand bought the Super Kmart locations, which seemed to augur well forthe future. I was privileged to work with the company for 6-mothsinternship program in 2016, where I came to understand how operationsare carried out at Sears Holdings Corporation
Duringmy short stay at the company, I was in a position to ascertain thestrengths and weaknesses associated with the company, and what themanagement was doing to make Sears better. Being a largecorporation, I was able to interact with many senior managers andemployees who provide me with the critical information concerning therumors that the company was not performing as per the requiredstandards.
HistoricalInformation and Culture of the Company
SearsHoldings Corporation has gone through thick and thin in the retailindustry since its inception. Being a conglomerate, the company’smain retailer is Sears retailer which has been in existence for overa decade. It has specialized in the sale of general merchandise,automotive parts, and home appliances among other items. Thecompany`s stakes have been higher bearing in mind that it is amongthe largest and most competitive retailers in the United States. Themanagement, in 2005, came up with a new setting if stores dubbed SearEssentials as a way of increasing its dominance in the highlycompetitive market segment (Gaughan, 2015). It converted Kmart storesto Sears Essentials, together with other locations bought Walmart,one of its major competitors. In 2005, Sears Holding Company, afterregulatory approval by the shareholders of Sears and KmartCorporation, merged the two companies.
Thecompany is focused on providing its customers with a good experiencetrough ensuring that the products sold are of extremely high quality.It is an organization which is highly determined to on becoming acustomer-focused company through a continuous improvement ofservices. The members are also highly prioritized since they make thecompany achieve the set goals and targets. Through the shareholders,the company envisions itself as a top-notch retailer with a focus onbecoming a world`s best company.
SearsHoldings is determined to build a committed and visionary team thatcan propel it to the highest levels of success. This can be achievedthrough embracing change and technology to create a favorable workingenvironment. It is within the tenets of Sears that every employee hasan obligation of making the company better and more prolific in termsof profit making
TheIssue In Need Of Change
Afterthe company had merged Sears and Kmart companies to make them oneentity on 2005, the prospects were overly high. It was expected thatthe organization was on the path of incredible profit-making.However, that has never been the case since Sears Holdings has beenon the trail of loss-making for a while now. It has struggled to beat the top and compete effectively with other retailers in the U.S.market. Poor financial performance has necessitated the closure ofvarious stores of across the country to cut down its operating costs.Poor management has left Sears on the verge of collapse since it hasnot managed to put in structures that can bring it back to its formerstate. Therefore, it is imperative that change is implemented in themanagement of this company to ensure that it continues to increasethe number of sales and profits.
Changesthat Needs to Take Place
Changemanagement takes time to be effectuated, and it is necessary for themanagement to ensure that the employees are given clear directions asto how the goals should be achieved, as stated by Goksoy (2016). Itis the prerogative of the management of every organization to set atarget for every employee. Managers must be in constant communicationwith employees to ensure that they are up to the task and contributeto the greater objective of increasing the performance of theorganization. The management at the Sears Holdings must be set clearexpectations for the employees to make sure that the company makes animprovement in sales and financial performance. This can be achievedwhen the leadership establishes a clear communication channel withthe employees.
Employeesare a critical part of every organization in its pursuit ofincreasing the level of performance. There is a dire need to equipthe employees with the relevant information that can be used totransform organizations (Tricker, 2015). Essentially, trainingemployees should be a continuous activity that every company shoulduphold, in order to keep them aware of the market changes. Onceemployees are educated, they can ultimately enhance the financialperformance of the organization and improve its image in the longrun. The poor financial performance of Sears Holdings could have beenoccasioned by the failure of employees to have credible knowledgeabout the industry, due to inadequate training. Therefore, this canbe negated by providing them with the paramount information aboutvarious aspects of the business. In so doing, the organization couldovercome all the challenges it has been experiencing and startmanaging its operational costs.
Adoptionof New and Advanced Technology
Forany organization to succeed, it must be in tandem with the newdevelopments in the market. Changing technology is a critical aspectthat enables organizations to keep on increasing performance.Employees must be ready to accept any new changes in technology, toensure that they take advantage of it to revolutionize the way thingsare done. If business operations are being automated by someorganizations, it would be the greatest undoing for others not toautomate their operations. One of the reasons that have made Searsnot to equally perform better that the competition is its failure tooperate on the online platform. Many businesses have been sellingtheir items online yet Sears never changed that perspective, andrelied on the normal way of doing business. It is, therefore,imperative for the management to adopt the new technology and startselling online, to maximize the revenues.
Accordingto Griffin (2012), employees can only adapt to change if they areproperly informed by their leaders about the need to change. In mostcircumstances, change becomes a reality to the team members dependingon the strategy used by the leaders to communicate. If the leadersfail to establish a clear and concise communication with theemployees and bring to their attention the changes needed,organizational transformation cannot become a reality. Employeeswould not be committed to ensuring that they contribute to theorganization to maintain incredible performance.
Manyemployees expect to be rewarded after a successful change management.Others fail to change if nothing substantial in terms or rewards ispromised to them. Rewards are in most cases considered as themotivational factor that prompts people to adapt to organizationchange. In any case that employees fail to change, waiting to berewarded, it could be detrimental to the organization. Organization’srewards system can at times be altered to support the change process,and this could have dire ramifications to the financial aspect of thecompany.
Financialdata would be the most enviable data to collect when examining theorganization`s performance. It would provide an insight into theareas that need improvement in order to realize the benefits ofchange. Financial data would be gathered from a number of goods andamount of profits gained over a given duration.
Thenumber of staff should be given due consideration since theyconstitute a critical part of an organization. Collecting employeedata would be instrumental in establishing the number needed to bringabout change in an organization.
Searswould require the organizational level of analysis to deal with theprevailing quagmire. This level of analysis handles almost everyprevailing issue that mars the organization. Financial problemsoccasioned by poor management of the company would be easily dealtwith through an organizational level of analysis. It is essential indetermining the factors that hinder the overall organizationalgrowth, and assist in finding amicable solutions.
Akey strategic solution to accomplishing the organizational change isthrough enhancing proper planning in various aspects of operations.The management should be steadfast in ensuring that everybody in theorganization is focused on producing the best results at all times.The leadership of the organization should impact all the levels ofthe company so that all employees can effortlessly contribute to theorganizational goals to maximize the sales and generateinsurmountable profits. It is paramount to be aware of the problemsthat workers go through while working in an organization and. Manyemployees fail to perform as a result of many work challenges thatrender them ineffective as asserted by Dean (2012). Upon observingsuch issues, the management would make critical and long-standingdecisions concerning how best such issues can be tackled head-on.Therefore, to make the organization perform as per the expectations,it would be necessary to come to an understanding of such challengesand address them forthwith. In so doing, the employees would enjoytheir working environment and contribute positively to the growth anddevelopment of the company. Proper planning would ensure that everyemployee is in a position to understand the values and goals of thecompany and strive to achieve them.
Forcesto Promote Change
Accordingto Halal (2015), the failure to adapt to technological changes actsas hindrances for organizations in catching up with the competition.It is vital for the organizations to fully realize the benefits thatcome with the change in technology. Essentially, every organizationshould strive to adapt to changes brought about by technologicaldevelopment. Sears should integrate technological development in itsstrategy in cope with the competitors that have maximized the use oftechnology.
Companieshave to follow and adhere to the laws and legislations that impactthe business. Legislations can be detrimental to the financialperformance of organizations due to huge fines imposed as a result offailing to keep pace with them. Therefore, Sears Holdings Corporationhas to adapt to the legislations imposed by the government and act ina responsible manner to its customers as well as the employees. Thiswould improve its image and attract more customers.
Forthe company to adapt to new and more sophisticated changes in themarkets and ensure that it establishes its presence, restructuringcannot be avoided at all costs. People within the organization canadapt to the dynamics of the market if various roles can be given tomore experienced and knowledgeable employees. Hierarchies andcommunications would have to be altered with the aim of managing theunderlying issues and make the organization`s financial performanceimprove. It is a strategic development that Sears Holdings mustconsider restructuring its structure to accommodate everyone who isvisionary to bring about the much-needed change.
Partiesto Include in the Solution Implementation
Forthe company to actualize the changes or solutions implemented,stakeholders cannot be ignored as they play a vital role in makingresilient decisions (Appelbaum, Habashy, Malo & Shafiq, 2012).They may include those individuals who have particular interest andconcern in an organization, and they have the power to influence theway organization operates. Therefore, stakeholders have to beinvolved in every aspect of the business.
Policymakers make sure that everything is in order before a proposal isimplemented. They can assist the organization to identify the gapsthat need to be addressed in a very profound way. The improvementsthat an organization would have to make to make the change managementa reality would be ascertained by the policy makers as well.
Thisgroup of individuals is helpful in the change management processsince it gives proper advice on the importance and drawbacks ofadopting to particular change. For instance, when coming up with anew technology, researchers would provide an insight into how suchtechnology would fair in the competitive market and far-reachingdecisions can be made by the management within a short time.
Explainingwhat would be considered a Success
Successwould be achieved when everyone has adopted to change and does allthat is possible to ensure its implementation (Combe, 2014).Once themanagement has overcome any form of resistance to change from theemployees, success would be considered to have been achieved. It isat this point when the organizational leadership has managed to leteveryone follow one direction that guarantees success in the longrun. Ultimately, the organization has already gone back to its formerfinancial position.
Assessingand reviewing change constantly would be an effective way of ensuringthat it brings about a positive development to the organization. Thisapproach would assist the responsible leader to correct any arisingissues promptly, and come up with other key strategies to makeimprovements in the organization.
Stakeholdersshould also be kept in the loop to ensure they participate and committhemselves to the change process. They should be updated on all thechanges taking place so that they can visualize what is going on inthe company. In so doing, any concerns they raise can be addressed intime.
StepsI Would Take to Implement the Recommended Solution
Iwould assess the solution made to ascertain that it can helpfacilitate adoption of the required change in the organization. Thesolution must befit the prevailing situation to ensure that it bringsabout the maximum benefits to the company. It is also critical tounderstand the situation and how it can be served best by the givensolution, to facilitate change
Inthe implementation of the solution, I would involve the employees tomake their contribution and express their views concerning itssuitability. As such, we can be able to make changes if necessary,before the solution is implemented.
Oncethe employees have ascertained that the solution is the best suitablefor the challenges the organization is facing, I would makevehemently implement it to realize the changes it would bring forth.I would also ensure that everybody is involved in implementing it.
Iwould assess the solution made to ensure that it is serving theintended purpose. I would also assess the environment to ascertainthat it favors the changes made. Moreover, I would recommend that allthe individuals involved in the implementation of the solution begiven a chance to rate it once it is implemented.
Appelbaum,S. H., Habashy, S., Malo, J. L., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to thefuture: Revisiting Kotter`s 1996 change model. Journalof Management Development,31(8), 764-782
Combe,C. (2014). Introductionto management.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dean,K. W. (2012). Values-based leadership: How our personal values impactthe workplace. TheJournal of Values-based leadership,1(1), 9.
Gaughan,P. A. (2015). Mergers,acquisitions, and corporate restructurings.Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Goksoy,A. (2016). Organizationalchange management strategies in modern business.Hershey: Business Science Reference.
Griffin,R. W. (2012). Management.Mason, OH: Learning Custom Publishing.
Halal,W. E. (2015). Businessstrategy for the technology revolution: Competing at the edge ofcreative destruction.Journalof the Knowledge Economy,6(1), 31-47.
Tricker,R. I. (2015). Corporategovernance: Principles, policies, and practices.Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
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ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 20
Organizationalsuccess depends significantly on the ability of a firm to beresponsive to change. The payoffs of successful change include thecapacity of an organization to flex in markets, competitors, andtechnologies leaving competitors far behind (Kotter, 2017).Therefore, organizational change refers to the planned alteration ofcompany components to improve its efficacy. Such components includethe vision, mission, culture, values, strategy, systems or processes,structure, people and technology in an organization. It can also bedefined as the planning, organizing, directing, and coordinating ofprocesses via which change is implemented. Sometimes, change resultsfrom other factors such as pressures from the environment or within aparticular context, particularly, the industry and spread through anetwork such as professional associates. According to institutionaltheory, organizations pursue legality through observing theisomorphic pressures in their setting (Ashworth, Boyne &Delbridge, 2007). The effect of such pressures is strongly felt onorganizational culture and strategies than on processes andstructures. Companies have to respond to rapid changes in technologyand markets in order to survive and remain competitive (De Dreu,2006). Organizations that improve their efficacy boost their capacityto generate value for the persons they serve. The process of changeimplementation in organizations starts with the processes ofinnovation as well as diffusion and practically almost entails aformal adoption execution and process. Leadership, culture andemployees’ motivation and decision-making are critical toorganizational change.
OrganizationalChange and Related Subfields
Organizationalchange is linked to all the processes in a firm. For instance,organizational change and leadership are interrelated. Successfulorganizational change requires leadership to be implemented.Leadership is essential in implementing cultural changes andendeavors to change corporate culture as the foundation on whichleadership is developed. There are two main approaches toorganizational change: planned and emergent change (Kuipers, Higgs,Kickert, Tummers, Grandia & Van der Voet, 2014). Transformationas well as the quest of breakthrough outcomes needs full attention toboth the internal dynamics of culture and external content (Landau,1969). Change leaders have to assist in transforming the relationalsystems, team, culture and individual mindset and behavior tosucceed. The state of awareness that an organizational leadershipbrings to transformation impacts their strategy and success atleading it. The transformational leadership behaviors of directsupervisors usually become an important circumstance for ensuringemployee support when change processes take on more emergentattributes (Van der Voet, 2014). The leadership level of knowledgedetermines the change approach they use, change plans they craft toimplement those methods, decisions they make, organizational andinterpersonal communication patterns, leadership styles, personalcapacity to change, organizational and interpersonal communicationpatterns and eventually their outcomes. Essentially, the leadershipstrategy determines what the leader is aware of and what he or shedoes not see (Kotter, 2017). A wider awareness offers both greaterdepth and greater breadth to organizational change.
Coordinationbetween organizational change and leadership development effortsensures better results for organizations. Both emergent and plannedapproaches to change are successful ways of ensuring change in abureaucratic situation (Van der Voet, 2014). True leaders deviatefrom cultural expectations in a manner that inspires other people todecide to follow. The managers at all company levels have to overcomeresistance for genuine cultural change to take place. Hence, changeinitiatives that need a divergence from a current set of behaviorsand norms are good learning setting for managers to improve theirleadership skills and are an important aspect of a fruitfulculture-change approach. The weight of established organizationalstandards in the public sector mediates the impact of management onperformance (Ashworth, Boyne & Delbridge, 2007).
Currently,the pace of change is higher compared to ten years ago, and fororganizations to be successful under the changing circumstances,strong leadership is required. Since change is an inevitable andnatural process in organization and the way for achievingorganizational success and growth, leadership need to embrace changeand help others in the change process. In addition, successful changeleadership entails dealing with human requirements and the issuesthat come with the process (Kotter, 2017). Nonetheless, such changeis underpinned by a set of values and vision that all persons may ormay not share. Leaders are required to create and communicate avision and empower other people to act on it (Kotter, 2017). Thevision helps to direct the change effort. Consequently, changemanagement has to be a combined effort between the leadership andemployees this ensures organizational changes fit the persons in thecompany and the needs of all people are met. Change management andleadership points to the need to move past change management towardsattentive change leadership that entails ensuring a joint futurethrough a transformative means to change. Change that istransformational in nature calls for leaders that pay attention toboth external and internal dynamics at the level of the individualand group. They should avoid the Einstellung (set) effect thatprevents better solutions from being found (Bilalic, McLeod &Gobet, 2008). Organizations need to integrate change management thatinvolves a plan or system of moving individuals from one point toanother in the change process. Nonetheless, for leadership tofacilitate such change they have to be transform employees to makethem more receptive to change. All persons affected by change shouldbe part of the process as they will be more apt to accept and adaptto the change on the condition that they were offered an opportunityto contribute to the process or understand the vision for the widergoals of the change (Kotter, 2017). The ability of leaders to providecorrect information regarding change and demonstrate their commitmentto the change process is important. Change management and leadershipare thus integrated as leadership is very important in making atransition. From the uppermost leadership levels to frontlinesupervisors, managing change depends on the actors to coordinate andmove in unison accomplishing unique roles. The productivity ofworkers increases due to the social links between the manager andemployees (Levitt & Neckermann, 2017).
Theprevailing culture in an organization also determines the success ofchange. It is important to understand the fit between organizationalcultures and individual preferences (O’ Reilly, Chatman &Caldwell, 1991). Since organizations comprise of people withdifferent personalities, talents, goals, they have a distinctculture. Various cultural aspects change when the employees dowhereas others seem to be enduring and fixed. The anatomy of acompany’s culture strongly influences the potential for success orfailure. Person-organization fit determines job satisfaction andorganizational commitment (O’ Reilly, Chatman & Caldwell,1991). Additionally, the capability of the organization andleadership to deal with change as well as support innovationsdetermines the mission success. The most significant change barriersare whereby measures are inconsistent with the prevailing culture ofan organization. Hence, for such change to be desired, the respectivecultural attribute have to be first changed for the change to becomestable and persist without pressure. Most change managers layemphasis on the need to change culture. Studies have shown thatmembers in an organization are more likely to accept change when thegoals and mission are aligned with the organization culture (Etzioni,1967). Cultural analysis is thus important in facilitating theplanning as well as implementation of organizational change. Leadersthus need to understand culture in order to ensure the success ofchange management. They should develop a comprehensive, integrativeapproach to change that ensures congruence of the subsystems(Fernandez & Rainey, 2006). Moreover, the changes should bealigned with the preferred end state.
Culturalinsights in an organization offer the leadership awareness of thedegree to which members are willing to embrace change. Understandingthe culture of an organization helps to determine the main cause ofthe problem that hinders better performance. Changing the culture ofan organization is one of the hardest leadership challenges due tothe existence of an interlocking set of roles, goals, attitudes,communications practices, values, processes as well as assumptions.These aspects fit together as a mutual reinforcing system andtogether they prevent all attempts to change the culture (Lindblom,1959). Normally, most companies experience solid resistance to changedue to the prevailing culture. Fruitful change thus must includesuccessful change management. The ultimate objective of changemanagement is to boost organizational outcomes and results throughengaging employees. Hence, there is a need to inspire employees toadopt a new culture or a new way of working. Regardless of whether itis a job role, system, process or organizational structure change,projects are only successful when individual employees change theirday to day behaviors and adopt the new culture (Kotter, 2017). Theconnection between organizational culture and change additionally isevident in the way change influences culture. It is mainlysignificant when the change embraces initiative, either due to a dealor obtaining or in light of the fact that top administration leavesthe organization. At the point when this happens, the new initiative,or new overseeing organization, is probably going to change the wayof life of the organization substantially.
Decision-makingand motivation are also important in change management.Decision-making is a critical management function and decisions mayimply that less or more change is required. The motivation ofemployees influences the decision-making process itself as well aschange management. Motivated and empowered employees accept plannedchanges and improvement proposals easily. In change management, it isimportant to remove barriers related to the functioning of thecompany and personality of employees. The motivation of employees isa key in any change in a company and influences the entire course ofchange management as well as the whole organization (Herbert, 1973).The goals of employees significantly affect productivity since theyhave to be in accord with the organizational goals (Levitt &Neckermann, 2014). In regards to change, employees determine theacceptance or rejection of change. One problem with employees is thatthey may be focused towards human elements. Due to the closeconnection between the employees, change management requires breakingof established norms. The best means to deal with resistance entailexpanding and supporting interchanges as well as training. Forexample, the change pioneer should get together with all directorsand employees to shed light on reasons behind the change. Anarrangement should be created and imparted. Meetings should be heldfor employees to articulate their views on the arrangement. Theyshould be offered the ability to articulate their disappointments andworries.
OrganizationalChange and Leadership
Themost common obstacles to change that most organizations experienceare employee resistance, breakdown in communication, staff turnoverduring change, inadequate time for training and expenses that exceedbudget. Due to such obstacles, leaders have a very important functionto play in change management. There are various ways that leadershiprole impacts the change obstacles. First, regarding changeresistance, leaders leverage their relationship with their teams todeal with employees concerns on an individual level. Moreover, theyask for feedback and respond to such concerns openly and honestly.They also deal with communication breakdown by communicatingimportant information to workers on a continuous and consistent basis(Kotter, 2017). Additionally, they address staff turnover by engagingteams by involving them in the change initiative. They mentor, coachand improve their roles. Some change efforts usually fail and thisusually have a major negative effect on a department or the entireorganization. In almost every industry, change management is in fullforce, however most leaders are not geared up to act upon as well asoperationalize the prerequisites for change to avoid disruptingbusiness. For most companies, preparedness needs to start at the topand hence leadership across every level should have complete clarityin focus and purpose there has to be an alignment in resolutionobjectives and strategic philosophy (Scott, 1969). Regrettably, mostorganizations are slow to change since internal policies make it hardto attain agreement across every level of leadership-even when theinevitability for change is urgent. Most organizationsunintentionally lose momentum since they fail to change fast enoughthey allow the competitors and the marketplace to pass them by. Theoutcome is wastage of valuable time, implementation of resources andinvesting money without the needed outcomes to keep employeesengaged, keep the clients satisfied and stay competitive. It isimportant that the leaders have clarity and be aligned with variousoutcomes of change endeavors (Kotter, 2017). They need to know howsuccess looks like financially and operationally and how it benefitscustomers and employees. They need to understand the mission theyare attempting to solve for the industry they serve and the approachthey can implement to improve their ability to achieve more for theorganization to become profitable, competitive and to attain marketleadership. Additionally, they should understand the relationshipsand resources that are mandatory for accomplishing their goals,achieving significance in the industry and achieving sustainablesuccess.
Mostleaders acknowledge the need to invest and improve due to changestaking place in the marketplace. They realize that they need to beproactive before they are forced by circumstances to change (Kotter,2017). Without a strategy, such change is the only substitution. Theright strategy, as well as execution of ideas, is necessary to makesignificant progress. For instance, change management requires crosspollination of ideas and ideals this helps leaders collaborate andinspire innovative teams for solving problems and identifyingopportunities jointly in spite of rank or hierarchy. Leaders thatencourage teamwork mentality to breed the expectation from eachemployee that only those agreeable to be team players fit in in thecompany and fit the culture that is being implemented. They need topromote a workplace culture with an attitude and mindset that isexpected from every employee (Dahl, 1947). Some organizations do nothave clarity because of misalignment in leadership which complicatesthe process of defining expectations for all persons involved. It isentirely impossible to have alignment and clarity when the leadershipteams in an organization embody disparate, disjointed componentsinstead of a meeting of knowledge and intelligence that is in tuneand robustly interconnected.
Leadershipis important in organizational change as evident in problems thatarise when the leaders within an organization are not eager to sharetheir knowledge for the betterment of the entire team andorganization. It is not possible to create a setting of alignmentand clarity when leaders are not transparent. Organizations cannot beinnovative or competitive in the industry when leaders are protectinghidden agendas that take primacy over increasing momentum for thecommon good in support of the mission. For their change goals,leaders thus need to have clarity in focus and purpose as well as analignment of strategic resolution objectives and philosophy (Kotter,2017). There has to be a common language that tolerates coursecorrection, monitors progression, and guides implementation along theway. Organizational change requires a culture where the leaders areeager to share their knowledge and all people within the organizationvalue teamwork. A well-defined, well thought-out and awell-communicated approach in change endeavors ensure successfultransformation processes.
OrganizationalChange and Culture
Thepreparation, as well as implementation of change, is significantlyculturally responsive. Effective leadership regularly use culturaldifferent to its advantage by matching its approaches and options tothe various groups (Frumkin&Galaskiewicz, 2004). There arenecessary steps that need to be considered when changing theorganization culture to fit required changes. Firstly, there is aneed to identify the current culture of an organization beforechanging its culture. Once the leaders understand the existingorganizational culture, they have to make a decision on where itwants to go, identify its strategic decision and also settle on howcorporate culture should look like to support success. The vision ofthe organization for its future needs to be known as well as howculture change should be used to support the realization of thatvision (Fernandez & Rainey, 2006). The management needs toconsider important values that they want to be represented in theorganizational culture. Besides, they should determine if the valuesare well-matched to the current culture within the organization.Nonetheless, the awareness of the desired corporate culture is notsufficient. Consequently, organizations have to create plans forensuring that the required culture is realized. The people in theorganization have to decide to change their behaviors to understandthe need for desired culture. Changing the culture of organizationsalso entail creating belief and value statements, practicingefficient communication, evaluating the organizational structure,redesigning the strategy for recognition and reward and reviewing allwork systems. All the employees oughtto be informed about the changetaking place in the organization to ensure success and commitment(Fernandez & Rainey, 2006). For the successful organizationalcultural shift to take place, employees need to be told what isexpected of them. An assessment of the organizational structure mightbe substantial since the physical structure might need to be changedto fit the preferred organizational culture. The rewards andrecognition strategy may need to be modified to encourage behaviorsessential to the preferred organizational culture. Moreover,performance management, pay practices, promotion of employees shouldbe aligned with the preferred culture.
Corporateculture is a moving target, which means different things to differentpeople` it evolved and grows over time and leads to action orreaction. For change management to be successful, the management hasto take culture into consideration and where adequately is shoulddrive a cultural shift. It requires various tools such as vision andmission, strategic intent, values, sufficient management system.Culture is a major component of the identity of a company. It resultsfrom a history and many events (Argyris, 1973). Consequently, acultural shift management is an important task that requires focus,time as well as persistence. Driving the cultural shift when neededis beyond change management, it is an essential part of management.
Cultureis crucial to an organization success (Kotter, 20170). There is astrong connection between the success of change programs and whetherculture was influenced during the change process this point to thecritical of a more culture-oriented strategy to change. Nonetheless,the way companies see culture as well as the way they treat it isdifferent in companies. Leaders thus need to take steps to augmentand more successfully leverage their culture (Denhardt, 1981).Organizations should adopt a more holistic approach to change, andthey need to discover ways of working within and with the currentculture during change plans. The leaders are required to rethink themeans to driving and sustaining change to materially boost thesuccess of their change initiative. Most change initiatives failmostly in the areas of quality improvement, digitization, costreduction and process improvement. To prevent such failures, changesplans need to consider culture as it is critical for organizationalsuccess.
OrganizationalChange, Employee Motivation, and Decision-Making
Employeemotivation determines the quality and level of changes that occur inan organization. On the other hand, variations in the organizationcan enhance or silence employees` motivation. Some organizations havemotivational programs that influence motivation. Such programs arepart of a company as a prerequisite of achievement of execution ofpotential changes. Motivated employees are usually contented people(Van der Voet, 2014). A constant evaluation of motivational aspectsand implementing different types of motivation boosts workeffectiveness and also reinforce the relationship of workers to theorganization. Consequently, employees accept changes easily and henceflexible in the future.
Currently,most organizations undergo significant changes, especially in timesof crisis. The changes are usually related to motivation as well asoffer a successful approach to motivate. To improve profitability andcompetitiveness, considerable emphasis is placed on implementingchanges in the organization (Van der Voet, 2014). To survive,companies have to continuously adapt to the events and circumstancesthat take place in the distant and near surroundings. It is criticalfor their survival as well as further development it is thusimportant to make adjustments while overcoming problems arising fromchange. Changes come through people and not alone (Ridgeway, 1978).In various cases, individuals do not even understand the need forchange because they run on the procedures and principles theyconsider satisfactory. Nonetheless, current organizations need achange in thinking, especially since it is the first aspect to changein organizations. The leaders should verify as well as persuasivelycommunicate the importance of change (Fernandez & Rainey, 2006).
Decision-makingis critical for day-to-day life. In most companies, it is linked towork activities as well as motivation. The decision-making processusually brings small to significant changes. The properdecision-making, as well as motivation of decision makers regardingorganizational changes, ensures successful work with information tobetter understand the significance of change as well as fastimplementation in reality. Decision-making is an important managementfunction. The outcomes of the decision-making process are dependentlargely on the knowledge, skills, experience, values, and subjectiveattitudes of leaders and employees.
Relevanceof Subfields to Public (or nonprofit) Managers Attempting Change
Leadershipis important for public and nonprofit managers seeking to implementchange. The leaders influence the effectiveness and speed with whichnew processes are implemented (Terrry, 1998). The manager plays thekey role of clarifying the vision and communicating it effectively.They leverage the preferred communication strategies to guaranteereceptiveness (Argyris, 1973). The leaders also stay connected withthe employees to explain the vision for change and enlist theirsupport. The leaders align the change management strategies with thecapabilities of the employees. Leaders are also expected to beaccountable and transparent. They have to know what is not workingand what is working. Leadership focuses on all organization aspectsincluding employees, processes, culture and management to ensureoptimal functioning. Good change management leaders acknowledge themisalignments or gaps and take proper steps to deal with theshortcomings. Transformational leaders are influential in evolvingchange processes, however only in a non-bureaucratic situation (Vander Voet, 2014).
Theleaders are expected to play the important role of communication,care, and commitment to organizational change. Leaders are the bridgebetween the envisioned change and the organization. They driveemployee commitment to change they support the employees as theymove through the process. They address the concerns and reaction ofthe employees and refocus their attention on the need for change andthe positive outcomes that will accrue. Successful leaders understandtheir role as well as expectations, clarify the vision, communicatewell and hold themselves and other people accountable all through thechange process in doing so, they steer even the most disruptivechanges. They need to guide their companies as well as the peoplethrough change (Van Wart, 2003). To realize the desired results froma new initiative, system or direction, companies need the benefits ofchange leadership together with organizational change.
Theorganization culture is important for public (or nonprofit) managersattempting to change organizational processes. The level of changeneeded in most organizations entails cultural transformation. Culture controls the expression of the organization (Kotter, 2017).Culture correlates with the notion of a learning organization sinceall change entails new learning at the level of the intergroup, thegroup, and individual. The managers have to target change that iscompatible with the culture of the company otherwise, the strategyfails. Culture usually controls expression and the manner in whichemployees express themselves has an effect on organizationalstrategic potential (Kotter, 2017). The members of an organizationare more likely to accept change when its culture is aligned with thegoals and mission. Managers should thus undertake a cultural analysisto aid the planning as well as the implementation of planned change.Culture change is necessary in the creation as well as reinforcementof organizational transformation (Kotter, 2017). Changes in thesocialization of new members bring about a commitment to the valuesof an organization and promote a team-oriented attitude. The impactof such approaches is apt to generate norms that reflect theobjectives of an organization. The managers’ identification ofculture ensures insights into the nature of the organizationalreaction to changes, the receptiveness of members to adjust and thestrategies through which winning organization change strategies maybe produced as well as executed.
Employeemotivation and decision-making are important for public (ornonprofit) managers attempting to manage change. Managers stimulatethe competence of employees to solve problems, to deal with dynamicand complex situations, and encourage novel ways of thinking.Involving the employees in the decision-making processes enable themto accept better and understand change (Fernandez & Rainley,2006). The managers ensure employees understand the needs ofstakeholders and their changing expectations (Provan & Milward,2001). Encouraging these capabilities assists all persons in theorganization to deal with changes in a better way. They shouldoptimize the entire network even though it comes at the expense ofmaximizing a node or group of nodes in the network (Provan, Fish &Sydow, 2007). Managers thus need to prepare the organization forchange that is focused on employees. They ensure a motivational planas an instrument for driving motivation the program is aprecondition of the success of the implementation of current andfuture changes. The direct interface between an organization and itssetting offers the framework for organizational change (Kuipers etal., 2014).
PotentialWeaknesses of Literature
Theapplicability of the sources is restricted to some form ofleadership, varying ways of motivation, and also differentorganizational cultures. For instance, the studies organizationalchange and leadership focus on senior managers and overlook theundertaking of junior supervisors and managers. The arguments in mostarticles explain effectiveness criteria of the different subfieldsand stakeholders at various level of analysis. They do not align thechanges with their causes including economic, technological social orpolitical factors. They do not discuss the types of changes andaddress change. Although they address the pre-requisite of effectivechange management, they do not highlight factors that are unique toboth public sector and private sector for successful changemanagement within the organization. They also do not exhaustivelycover the plan for dealing with change every step of the change(before, during and after).
Inboth private and public organizations, change is inevitable.Nonetheless, the way organizations initiate change varies. It comesfrom internal and external factors and hence change is fundamentalfor organizations. Organizational change enables the managers orteams to manage the planned new direction effectively. Leadership,organizational culture and employees’ motivation anddecision-making are critical to organizational change. They are someof the most essential pre-requisites for successful change managementin public sector organizations. Leaders play a major role in changemanagement. Leaders at each level need to have total clarity inpurpose and focus of change management approaches. Leaderscollaborate and inspire innovative teams for solving problems andidentifying opportunities. They encourage teamwork mentality andpromote a workplace culture with an attitude and mindset that isexpected from every employee regarding the proposed change. Leadersthat ensure a well-defined, well thought-out and a well-communicatedapproach in organizational change endeavors guarantee successfulchange management. Organizational culture is important in public ornonprofit organizations as change entail cultural transformation. The leadership has to make sure that the members of the organizationare included in the change process. Changes in the socialization ofnew members bring about a commitment to the values of an organizationand promote a team-oriented attitude towards the modification.Employee motivation and decision-making are critical in ensuringtheir competence to solve problems, dynamic and complex situations,and encourage novel ways of thinking. Involvement of employees in thedecision-making processes enables them to accept better andunderstand change. The relationship between organizational change andleadership, organizational culture, employee motivation anddecision-making is critical in managing change efforts inorganizations.
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