Productdevelopment is a process that isaimedat creating new goods and services and introducing them to themarket. The construction industry is vital to any economyand it has a significant impact on the environment. Therefore,the construction industryis one of the largest consumers of energy, material resources, andwater, whichtendsto cause pollution. Organizations,in response to this impact of contamination, have come up with aconsensus that is committed to environmental performance targets andsetting up strategies and actions that are appropriate, and that makeconstruction activities more sustainable. Onthese effects of the construction industry, the sustainable buildingand construction industry can make a valuable contribution towardssustainable development.
Sustainabilitydevelopment aims at enhancing the quality of life of the people byimproving the social, economic, and environmental conditions(Vinodh, et al, 2014).Any sustainable project designed should be able to meet objectivessuch as resource and energy efficiency, reducing the emissionof harmful gases, and prevention of pollution, for instance,harmonizationwith the environment.
Constructionand design practitioners have started to pay attention towards beingable to control the environmentaldamage as a result of their activities through the implementation ofsustainability objectives at the design development stage of aconstruction project. Thus, this paper complementsthe existing research in the sustainability field by reporting thedevelopment of a conceptual framework for being able to implement thesustainability objectives at the project-specific level in theconstruction industry.
SustainabilityDevelopment Construction Principles.
Intoday’s construction market, which is competitive, there areproject methodologies, hence, by tailoring your choice of particularlevel projects ensures the successof your construction. Globally, the construction and building sectoris one of the most resource-intensiveindustries compared with other areas.It is also the largest polluter to the environment. The principalissues associated with sustainable construction themes areshownbelow.
Table1. Sustainable building issues
1.0 Maintenance of high and
stable levels of local
economic growth and
1.1 Improved project delivery
1.2 Increased profitability &
-Improved productivity which entails consistent profit growth, employee
satisfaction, supplier satisfaction, and client satisfaction.
-Minimizing defects, for example, it should be shorter and more predictable concerning its completion time.
-Predictability delivering services which provide the best value to clients and focuses on developing a customer’s business.
2.0 Prudent use of natural
2.1 Improved energy
2.2 Efficient use of resources
-Minimizing polluting emissions preventing
noise pollution and dust emission by good site and depot management.
-Waste minimization and elimination, for instance, by preventing pollution incidents and breaches of environmental requirements.
-Habitat creation and environmental improvement by protecting the sensitive ecosystem by carrying out good
construction practices and supervision.
-Energy efficient at depots and sites, for example, reduced energy consumption in construction activities design for whole-life costs by using local
supplies and materials with low
embodied energy and using the recycled or sustainability sourced products.
-Water and Waste minimization and management.
3.0 Social progress which
recognizes the needs of
3.1 Respect for staff
3.2 Working with local
communities and road users
3.3 Partnership working
-Providing adequate training and appraisals that are equitable and by providing equal opportunities.
-Health, safety, and conducive working environment, which maintains the
morale of the employee and satisfies them.
-Participation in decision-making, which minimizes the local nuisance and disruption
-Minimizing traffic disruptions and
delays by constructing efficient networks used in communication.
-Contributing to the local economy through local employment and procurement, and delivering services that
enhance the local environment building long-term
relationships with clients.
Thesustainable construction approach is considered to help theconstructionindustry towards achieving sustainable development, which takes intoaccount the environmental conditions. The table portrays theindustry’s way of protecting the environment. It refers to variousmethods in the process of launching construction projects that are ofless harm to the environment. That is preventing waste production,increased recycling in the manufactureof constructionmaterials, and waste management.
SustainableImplementation in the Construction Industry
Themost significant factors that are involved in the successfulimplementation of a design or construction approach depends ontimeliness (Eigner,et al, 2014).Construction projects often move faster,and one must make quick decisions. Toachieve sustainability in the design and construction industry,there areseveralways in which the nature of constructionactivities can becontrolledso as to curbenvironmental damage without reducing the beneficialoutcome of the events.The three objectives of achieving the implementation of sustainableconstructiondesign areresource conservation, cost efficiency, and design for humanadaptation.
Resourceconservation is where the human use of resources is managed tomaximizebenefit to the currentgenerations while upholding the capacity to meet the needs ofthe future generations (Gmelin& Seuring 2014).Productivity improvement minimizesthe impacts on the abilityof the natural systems to assimilate the waste materials and energy.Resource conservation entails conserving water, land, energy, andmaterials.
Theconcept of sustainability in the construction sector intends topromote maximumefficiency and to reduce financial costs. Paying attention to thelifecycleof constructionprojects regardingthe choice of materials to be used and design will help in minimizingthe overall costs that are incurred by the users and owners. Thus,the cost-effectivenessofconstructionisviewedas a strategy for achieving sustainability.
Theprimarypurpose of sustainable constructionisproviding a healthy and comfortable environment for various humanactivities. Any constructionmust provide anindoor healthclimate to the people that are using it. Thus, sustainabledevelopment requires that the constructioncauses no risk to the environment, for instance, in the form ofenergy consumption.In a modern society, more than 70% of the people spend their timeindoors,therefore, architectures should provide the peoples’ health,physiological comfort, satisfaction, and productivity when in thebuildings.
Studentswho focus on the construction engineering and management should havean in-depth knowledge about the possible ways to curbenvironment problems in construction.The course objectives can beachievedby introducing general methods and tools of preventing pollution anddesign for environmental and industrial ecology.
Sustainabledevelopment in the construction sector isconsideredas a way for the industry to move towards ensuring that theenvironment isprotected.Sustainability pursuesa balance among the economic, social, and environmental performancewhile implementing construction projects. With the awareness of theimportance of protecting the environment, constructionpractitioners should implement the sustainable building practices.The new design approach must also be able to recognizewhat the impacts of their design choice on the environment are. Asconstruction practitioners and engineers, we have a responsibility inoffering the best solutions since the existing engineering designs donot minimizelife cycle costs regardingthe economic and environment impact. Therefore, future engineers mustdevelop a sustainable design.
Gmelin,H. & Seuring, S. (2014). Determinants of a sustainable newproduct development. Journalof Cleaner production,69, pp.1-9.
Eigner,M., et al. (2014). System Lifecycle Management: Initial Approach fora Sustainable Process Based on Methods of ModelBased Systems Engineering. InPLM(pp. 287-300).
Vinodh,S., et al, 2014. Integration of ECQFD, TRIZ, and AHP for innovativeand sustainable product development. AppliedMathematical Modelling,38(11), pp.2758-2770.
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PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 1
ProductDevelopment & Operations – Category Manager Analysis
The Moisturizing Black Soap Shampoo product that was launched in 2014has been seen as a good example of products that have significantlyimpacted within technology advancement.Under the benefits ofintroducing this new product for Alikay Natural Moisturizing BlackSoap Shampoo has created a greater market share than the slower firm.Moreover, there has been price premiums making the company to bringthe current product to the market to enjoy little or no competitionas well as being in charge of premium in prices. The firm gains aquick reaction to the competition where it can be able to quicklyrespond to the competitor`s surprise announcing the introduction ofnew product. Finally, it set an industry standard where there isrevolutionary of the product within the firm into the market, whichhas been a luxury in setting the industrial standards(Natural, 2017).
Step1: Product Life Cycle
According to Rochelle and her team within Alikay Naturals basedinformation in Product Report, I believe that Alikay Black SoapShampoo is within the Maturity stage of the Product Life Cyclebecause of the constant stream of sales. Turnover seems to beconsistent with the two shown years, and the retails stores are seento make the prediction of the sales amount. For an instant, theturnover for the year 2015 within the four quarter is seen as Q1 3.1,Q2 2.9, Q3 3.2, and Q4 3.6. Contrarily to 2016, the two-quarter showsQ1 3.9 and Q2 4.1, which have shown a tendency of normalcy. Moreover,the market share under the two shows a stream of sales as it rangesfrom 3.8 percent in 2015 first quarter to 3.4 percent in the lastquarter. Comes 2016, the market share is seen to be 3.0 % and 2.8 %respectively, which argues that the product is wholly doing well. Asperceived by the complete survey done, more than 2,000 consumersresponded it well especially most of them claimed that the hairslooks and feel better within two weeks after applying theMoisturizing Black Soap Shampoo.
Since the product is in the Maturity stage of the Product Life Cycle,I prefer the three question posed would suit best within Rochelle andher team in Alikay Black Soap Shampoo in bettering the product’sposition so that at least it is potential at this stage.
What amicable measures should be introduced to the competing market to make the product to remain the sole proprietor?
What alternate ways would be implemented to fight with the rising product rivals at a cross range without interfering with the original product makes?
What are the concern measures needed to be put to cater for the unhappy percentage using the Alikay Naturals product talking that it do not leave their hair to smell great so that they can fall on the majority likes?
Step2: Product changes
My recommendation that I have concerning the Alikay Naturals inimproving or replacing the Moisturizing Black Soap Shampoo is that asI keep reviewing the consumer survey summary, shows that the consumerpreference has to be addressed since they have a voice of concernswithin the product in making it better. I keep finding the issuewhere the user are seen to prefer the shampoo with the thickerproduct than the watery, as the consumer apply more of the productand finish it faster. In another issue, the Black Soap scent withinthe survey where the question asked whether it leaves the hairsmelling greater than other shampoos, a majority of 22 responded theydisagreed, and only nine responded to agree their hair feel greatstrongly. In this entire product, I advise that there is a need to betweaked in adjusting this minor adjustment and this makes me feelthat the sales would be seen to rise in the next quarter again.
If I had to recommend one product based on the surveys, I wouldrecommend the firm to move forward with the Alikay NaturalsMoisturizing Black Soap Shampoo with Dandruff Control. It has shownprimary concern among the consumer who wants to use the product iscontrol of dandruff and what is safe in using it. The fact that isalready helping the customers as one statement states, ‘while itcleans efficiently and dries out the scalp less than others, I wishit would treat dandruff.` Under this product statement, it does, infact, only seen in reducing dandruff, which is the original productbeing only one improvement requested. Under the main issue that isaddressed, based on the survey of the consumer feedback, is thicknessand fragrance. Where neither of these matters is seen to be addressedacross the new product.The initial product enjoyed it but wished itwould help in treating dandruff. The potential consumer wants thesame shampoo where it keeps the organic ingredient, and this makes itshampoo that who suit both the needs of the buyers and increase thesales.
Under the determination in which type of the innovation that wouldrepresent the four stated types, I would choose the sustainableinnovation since sustainability consideration, that is theenvironmental, financial and social are well integrated into the firmsystem. Being that the product applies natural ingredients it wouldonly be seen on the right to move to the mindset in considering theenvironmental resources.
Step4: Production Methods
I think the production method that Alikay to be used in Black SoapShampoo would be advertising the product, which might be the bestpath to the revenue. The customer is seen to ask for the product likethis and needs to understand its whereabouts. Signs in retail storesalongside with the commercial ads can be used to provide a positiveoutcome.
Alikay should apply the batch production method as the test for themarket product as the Alikay will be manufacturing the MoisturizingBlack Soap Shampoo while producing a moderate quantity of the"limited time only" trial shampoo. According to the batch,production is seen as the group within the same item, which is madeat one time, and is typically going through various productionstages. Thus, under the AAlikay, it will do the same in customizationof the test within the market production such as adding conditionerand unique protein ingredients.
Step5: Real-World Application
Under the introduction of iPhone 7 from Apple, this is in the maturestage of the product lifecycle. According to Apple firm, Iphone 7 isthe latest version released in 2016. It is the upgrade of iPhone6were some design components are sleeker that include the camera aswell as the standard enhancements on the battery life and theresolution of the screen. IPhone 7 sales are peaking now. Under theApple Company, it has been excellent in making the products andunderstood well the production costs. As the firm attempt inprolonging the maturity phase, as long as it is possible, it is seento likely introduce innovations such as software upgrades, designcomponents, battery, camera, screen quality among others. The productand the consistent new release under the Apple product period keepthe customers interested in staying a step ahead of the rivalry.
Natural, A. (2017). PRODUCT Report for Alikay NaturalsMoisturizing Black Soap Shampoo (1st ed., pp. 1-6). StrayerUniversity.
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