Professors Name Class
CarbonDioxide and Greenhouse Effect
Carbondioxide (CO2) exists in the natural environment in gaseous form. Itis colorless and has no smell. It is very crucial as it supports lifefor some living organisms. It constitutes of a carbon atom that iscovalently bonded to two oxygen atoms. It makes up 0.04% of thegasses in the atmosphere. CO2 is mostly sourced from volcanoes, hotsprings, and geysers. In addition, it is harnessed by dissolution ofcarbonate rocks in water and acids. Due to its solubility in water,it exists in groundwater, rivers, and lakes (Rao and Edward 4473). Italso exists in petroleum and natural gasses as crude oil contains avery great percentage of carbon dioxide in its contents. It isimportant to note that, atmospheric carbon dioxide is used by greenplants for photosynthesis. Green plants are the primary sources offood in the ecosystem therefore, carbon dioxide is a key lifesupporter on planet earth.
Carbondioxide is classified as a greenhouse gas, thus, a major contributorto the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is defined as thewarming up of Earth’s surface as a result of radiation (Raval andVeerabhadran 761). The atmosphere radiates energy in all directions.Radioactive gasses and other substances in the atmosphere areresponsible for radiation. When this radiation is towards the surfaceof the Earth, the warming effect occurs which is called thegreenhouse effect (Stocker).The extent of the greenhouse effect is determined by the temperatureof the atmosphere and the greenhouse gasses content too. It is alsoimportant to note that global warming is a result of the greenhouseeffect.
Theearth atmosphere is warmed by the heat from the sun. Thermalradiation from the surface and convective heat conduction warm theatmosphere naturally. Greenhouse gasses (such as carbon dioxide)radiate energy which heats up the surface and the lower atmosphere.The greenhouse effect is therefore observed as the difference betweenthe natural temperature of the atmosphere and the temperature risedue to radiation (Rao and Edward 4475). Too much radiation in theatmosphere is a threat to human life.
Themanagement and control of greenhouse gasses is a very crucial andimportant task that has been advocated by nations all over the worlddue to the global warming. The harmful effects of global warming aresuch as the melting of glaciers and ice sheets in the mountains whichare the main sources of water. Also, the temperature rise in waterbodies which in turn causes the drying up of water bodies, thus,negatively affecting the marine ecosystem. The most advocated effortis the control of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxideemissions are mostly attributed to vehicle exhaust and industrialgaseous waste.
Thecombustion of fuel results in the emission of very high levels ofcarbon dioxide into the atmosphere. For this reason, the extensiveuse of fossil fuels for generation of electricity and powering ofengines has remained a contentious issue that has led to the researchon alternative sources of power. This is to ensure that thesealternative sources are environment-friendly so as to reduce theinfluences of the greenhouse effect, thus, curb global warming. Theusage of fossil fuels without these harmful emissions is also analternative that is being considered globally.
Therehas been the development of technology in dealing with the capture ofcarbon dioxide through methods fashioned towards separating carbondioxide from gaseous streams. These methods are based on absorption,adsorption, membranes and cryogenics (Stocker). Future power planttechnologies are being designed so as to absorb carbon dioxide beforecombustion. The methods used in the control of carbon dioxide arechemical processes aimed at capturing and storing carbon dioxide iscaptured. Secure storage of carbon dioxide is called for to avoid itscontamination with other gasses. The desire to control carbon dioxideis a global topic in climate changes control (Stocker).
Amine-basedcarbon dioxide control systems are the most advocated control systemsfor combustion-based power plants. This is because they dilute carbondioxide streams which contain ten to twelve percent carbon dioxideconcentration. Amine-based control systems are a technology that isavailable currently and it is being commercially used. An importantadvantage of the usage of the amine-based system is that they operateat ordinary temperatures and pressures (Rao and Edward 4469). Majorinvestments are being made to improve these environmental controlsystems for carbon dioxide control.
Theradiation energy trapped in the atmosphere by gasses and clouds isresponsible for the rise in global surface temperatures byre-radiating solar energy to space (Raval and Veerabhadran 759). Thishappens with regard to atmospheric temperature in that, coldtemperatures lead to more absorption of solar energy. Moreover, watervapor being a strong greenhouse gas, its occurrence in high levelsraises the temperatures even higher. The sky is clear near theequator and the clarity decreases as one moves away from the equator.This is an indication that water vapor is maintained in theatmosphere in reference to the temperature levels (Stocker).The clouds in the atmosphere are responsible for trapping solarradiation and reflecting it too. Therefore, the solar energy in theseclouds heavily contributes the greenhouse effect.
Scrubbingis the commonly used system for harnessing CO2 from the flue gasstream. Scrubbing method comprises two major elements it contains anabsorber that removes carbon dioxide and a regenerator or a stripperwhere the carbon dioxide is released in a concentrated state into thestorage system. This ensures the recovery of the original solvent.The amine system consumes a lot of heat energy in regenerating thesolvent. Some of the heat required is acquired from the steam cyclewhich greatly minimizes the net efficiency of the power plant(Rodríguez-Caballero et al. 390). Electrical energy is also requiredin compression and transportation of the acquired carbon dioxide intoits storage site. The absorption of carbon dioxide from flue gassesin the amine- based capture system relies on gas- liquid masstransfer. Moreover, chemical reactions that allow for the diffusionof carbon dioxide at the gas- liquid interface controls the rate ofmass transfer. Several parameters that determine the volume of carbondioxide captured include flue gas composition, pressure, temperaturerates, and the flow rates.
However,in controlling the greenhouse effect, several challenges areencountered. This is due to the presence of other acidic gasimpurities which affects the performance of the removal system(Rodríguez-Caballero et al. 385). For instance, traces of Sulphurdioxide negatively affect the removal system.
Futurescientific inventions should ensure a safer environment for betterclimatic conditions thus managing and controlling global warming.Carbon dioxide is one of the major causes of the greenhouse effectwhich has negative effects in the atmosphere and generally on life.therefore, living organisms in the earth’s surface requireprotection and safe climatic conditions so as to support life in itsessence.
Rao,Anand B., and Edward S. Rubin. "A technical, economic, andenvironmental assessment of amine-based CO2 capture technology forpower plant greenhouse gas control." Environmentalscience & technology 36.20(2015): 4467-4475.
Raval,Ameet, and Veerabhadran Ramanathan. "Observational determinationof the greenhouse effect." Nature 342.6251(2016): 758-761.
Rodríguez-Caballero,Adrián, et al. "Evaluation of process conditions triggeringemissions of greenhouse gasses from a biological wastewater treatmentsystem." Thescience of the Total Environment 493(2014): 384-391.
Stocker,Thomas, ed. Climatechange 2013: the physical science basis: Working Group I contributionto the Fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel onClimate Change.Cambridge University Press, 2014.
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Professors Name Class
RudyNino, Assistant Director
RudiNino is an interim assistant director who has acquired expertise indifferent fields of city planning with enormous experience in hisprofession. He was the overseer of annexation and Tax IncrementReinvestment Zone programs. He was also the planning administrator inthe department of planning and community development in the city SanAntonio, and the senior planner in the development servicesdepartment still in the city of San Antonio (Rudy and Priscilla).
Inhis speech, Rudi Nino defines annexation as the scenario whereby acity transfers all its taxing and municipal privileges to anothercity or area. He quotes the local government code of Texas, whichtalks more about the laws that are used to govern the cities.Moreover, he explains that cities annex so as to assess the growthstrategies of regions that they are not in control of (Rudy andPriscilla). Annexation of cities comes along with various benefitsfor instance, it gives a chance to the systematic development of aregion, it ensures the safety of the military and provides revenuefor city projects (Rudy and Priscilla).
PriscillaRosales-Pina, Planning Coordinator
Thesecond guest speaker is the senior management analyst at the City ofSan Antonio. She has gained a remarkable working experience and iscurrently working as the senior planning coordinator at the planningdepartment, the City of San Antonio in Texas (Rudy and Priscilla).
Shewent ahead to explain the full purpose annexation. She noted thatfull annexation involved annexation of the city taxing and municipalprivileges. She further explained the limited purpose of annexationwhere only strategies for development are extended. In addition, shelisted the procedure of annexation, the strategies involved, andfinally, the program of annexation in general where she explained onthe targets involved with the program.
RudyNino, and Priscilla Rosales-Pina. "Annexation 101."PlanningDepartment.City of San Antonio, 2017.
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