Question#1: Major Categories of Motives
Biological motives are inborn, and they exist in nature. Notably, the incentives are vital to survival. Primarily, natural motives are physiological, and they help maintain the body equilibrium when there is an imbalance. Also important to note, the biological motives of the humans are not different from those of the animals, since they relate to the working of a cell (Higgins, 2016). Mainly, the needs are such that they are vital to the body and therefore necessary to satisfy. Examples of the biological motives include desires to eat when hungry, feeling of thirst, pain and the desire for sex.
The second category is the social motives. The setting of the purposes is social groups such as friends, family. The distinguishing feature of this class of purposes is the involvement of other people in their expression. Importantly, the motives are learned as one grows up. Examples of secondary motives include human aggression and the pursuit of success.
The last category is curiosity motives. The reasons arise from the human nature to explore the surroundings. Therefore, the motives have a social and biological implication. The purpose of the curiosity can be the search for knowledge and satisfaction or some other time is just for pleasure. The example of the curiosity motive includes the play behaviors of the child.
Question#2Maslow’s Hierarchy of Motives
The Maslow`spyramid tries to capture the different levels of motivations in thehuman beings. The idea is that the people are motivated to act in acertain way due to various motivation factors (Higgins, 2016).
At the bottom of the Maslow’s pyramid are the physiological needs. For example, the food clothes and shelter. However, apart from the basic needs, human beings also require things like sex.
The second level of the pyramid is the need for safety. People need order and stability.
The third level of the hierarchy is about the feeling of love and belonging. The importance of this level is the need of the human beings to have a stable relationship.
Level five in the hierarchy is about esteem.
The level indicates the pursuit of the human beings to gain power and prestige. Self-actualization is close to the apex of the pyramid. The point of this level is the need of the individuals to achieve greater human behaviors (Higgins, 2016).
At the top of the pyramid is the need for greater experience (self-transcendence). The various levels of the model relate significantly, for example, one requires food before safety. Furthermore, without a shelter security cannot be guaranteed. Once basic needs and security are guaranteed, people will pursue relationships and other social interactions. In turn, the relationship pushes individuals to self-actualization.
Question#3Elements of Emotion
The items in theemotions can be grouped into:
Cognition, this is the ability to understand a situation and develop ways of influencing it.
The second element is the feeling. The importance of feeling is, they give motivations.
The third element is behavior, it the response to an emotion which can take the form of a gesture, facial or posture (Higgins, 2016).
In conclusion,emotions define the day-to-day interactions of the human beings. Theworks done by Maslow helps to understand the motivations of humanbeings at different stages in time. Importantly studying emotionscontribute to differentiation of divesity in behaviors andcharacters.
Higgins, E. T.(2016). 64 Promotion and Prevention Motivations. ScientistsMaking a Difference: One Hundred Eminent Behavioral and BrainScientists Talk about Their Most Important Contributions, 301.
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Problem Solving Strategies
A trial-and-error strategy can be applied to solve problems. Themethod involves using several solutions to address a problem andeliminating those that fail to work. The trial-and-error technique issuitable for situations that have limited number of relevantsolutions (Corno & Anderman, 2015). The presence of many choicesmay hinder the effectiveness of the method. Therefore, individualsare required to narrow the available options before utilizing thetrial-and-error method to address an issue.
Besides,a heuristic strategy can be used to handle problems. The method isdefined as a mental rule-of-thumb, which applies to limitedsituations (Corno & Anderman, 2015). The technique helpsindividuals to simplify a complex issue and narrow the availablesolutions to a considerable set. Correct solutions are, however notguaranteed when heuristic is employed.
Furthermore,insight strategy can be employed in problem-solving. Individuals arelikely to identify the solutions to an issue at a sudden sight. Inmost cases, the recognized problems may be similar to previousencounters (Corno & Anderman, 2015). Awareness and exposureinfluence the application of the insight strategy because pastknowledge is used to develop a solution.
Tendencies against to Problem-solving Work
The tendency to investigate and evaluate issues in a customary wayhinders problem-solving. Functional fixedness limits the work ofindividuals by preventing them from identifying the available optionsthat can be followed to develop a solution.
Moreover, people tend to follow misleading or irrelevant informationto handle a problem. The ability to differentiate between relevantand irrelevant information is essential in problem-solving (Corno &Anderman, 2015). When individuals encounter complex problems, theymay rely on misleading information to develop solutions.
The mental set is also a tendency that hinders the problem-solvingwork. People are likely to concentrate on previously used solutionsto solve a problem instead of establishing alternative methods.Mental set influences inflexibility, resulting in the utilization ofineffective solutions.
Language Development Stages
The prelinguistic is the initial stage that involves making eyecontact, development of gestures, babbling, sound repartees, cooing,and crying. Sounds such as "dada dada" are heard from thechild. Interpretation may be impossible at the prelinguistic stage.
The holophrase stage follows the prelinguistic stage and involves achild uttering a single word (Harris, 2013). Non-verbal cues andrelevant context supplement the meaning of the word. For instance,the child may point to a bottle and start saying “botty” todemand for it.
Besides,the two-word sentence is a stage of language development. A childutters negative, interrogative, declarative, or imperative sentencesthat consist of a verb or noun accompanied with a modifier (Harris,2013). For instance, the child can say, "Where ball," toask for a ball.
Multiple-wordsentence is a stage in which a child forms sentences that have apredicate and a subject. Exposure to mediated language influenceslanguage development in the multiple-word sentence stage. The childutters telegraphic sentences that are sometimes quite long.
Moreover,overgeneralization stage is passed during language development.Children utter sophisticated sentences and words (Harris, 2013).Language rules are internalized in this stage, and correct forms maynot be used. For instance, the child may say, "I comed home,"instead of "I came home”.
Alfred Binet’s Contribution
Binet developed intelligence tests that were used in psychology toevaluate the cognitive levels of individuals (Jarvin, &Sternberg, 2013). The mentally disabled children could be identifiedusing the tests and relevant strategies applied to help them at theirearly stages of development. Mental age in psychology was alsoassigned using the intelligence tests.
Corno, L., & Anderman, E. M. (2015). Handbook of educationalpsychology. Routledge.
Harris, M. (2013). Language experience and early languagedevelopment: From input to uptake. Psychology Press.
Jarvin, L., & Sternberg, R. J. (2013). Alfred Binet’scontributions to educational psychology. Educational psychology: Acentury of contributions/Ed. by BJ Zimmerman, DH Schunk. Mahwah, NJ,65-80.
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