Discussthe Rods and Cones and Differentiate Between the Visual ExperiencesAttributed to Each
Rodsand cones differ in shapes that also suggest their names, with thecone being the shape of a cone and the rod being rod-like. Rods havelow spatial resolution and are sensitive to light. They are mainlyfound at the margins of the retina, whilst cones are concentrated atits center (Krol& Roska, 2015).Cones have a low spatial acuity as compared to rods, which have ahigh acuity. Cones allow people to see different colors. Rods, on theother hand, are responsible for photopic vision at high levels oflight. They have high spatial resolution and possess a highsensitivity to light.
Rodsand cones respond to diverse light intensities owing to the differentways that transduction happens in the receptors. A rod can respond toone photon of light, but it would take 100 photons for the cone torespond. Human vision mostly depends on high light concentration,thereby depending more on cones (Krol& Roska, 2015, p706).
FrequencyTheory of Hearing and Place Theory of Hearing
Theplace theory of hearing, also known as the resonance theory, proposesthat the inner ear acts as a tuned resonator. Incoming sound signalsare extracted by the inner ear in a spectral form. The sound signalrepresentation is then directed to the brainstem, and then throughthe auditory nerve to the auditory cortex. In a process calledfrequency place mapping, the sound is resonated at a particularcharacteristic frequency by the basilar membrane (Mangal,2013).
Thefrequency theory, on the other hand, proposes a manner oftransmission analogous to a telephone line. The theory supposes thatan incoming sound signal is passed to the brain in a full time domainrepresentation through the auditory nerve. The theory holds that theauditory nerve has the capacity to pass a wide range of frequencythat is passed and analyzed in the brain as opposed to the inner ear.Low frequency sounds are attributed to the frequency theory, whilsthigh frequency sounds are attributed to the place theory. Boththeories account for mid-frequency hearing (Mangal,2013, p92).
Thegate control theory posits that pain resulting from physicalsensations is additionally determined by thoughts, beliefs andemotions. According to the theory, varying moods generate varyingfeelings of pain. This is the reason that a person may be hurt duringa game, but feel the pain later when there is concentration on theinjury. A pain signal is generated when something physical, and thatstimulates pain happens. The signal moves along a nerve in the spinalcord as a message. The message passes a spinal gate to thesubconscious brain through the brain gates. At the brain gates,messages that go to the conscious brain are filtered, resulting tothe conscious experience of pain. The reaction of the brain to thesignals determines the amount of pain experienced. When the brainallows its gates to open, pain signals pass through resulting tofeelings of pain. When the gates are shut, fully or partially, painlessens in relation to the nature of the openings at the gates(Visser,2017, p2).
Krol,J. & Roska, B. (2015). Rods feed cones to keep themalive. Cell, 161(4),706-708.
Mangal,S. (2013). GeneralPsychology.New Delhi: Sterling Publishers.
Visser,H. (2017). UnderstandingChronic Pain.Retrieved from http://www.wholenessfc.com/Understanding_Chronic_Pain.pdf
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