Political and cultural factors have a huge bearing on human affairs.Many societies are influenced by their interactions with people fromother communities. In ancient Israel, the nation was under God’sinvisible rule. God primarily used judges to provide justice andspiritual guidance (Lemche, 2015). However, certain factors led tothe establishment of the monarchy. In the Middle East, most of thenations were recognized as fully-fledged monarchies. However,uprisings and protests occurred in countries such as Tunisia, Yemen,Bahrain, Libya, and Egypt. In this paper, I will argue that the ArabSpring was motivated by factors such as corruption, unemployment,authoritativeness, and social media.
The monarchy was established in Israel due to several political andcultural factors. The Jewish people wanted to have a politicalfigurehead just like the other nations around them (Lemche, 2015).God had ruled as an invisible king ever since he rescued his peoplefrom the oppression in Egypt. In this regard, he had exercised hisauthority over the nation in different ways. Notably, he killed theEgyptian army and made it possible for the entire nation to passthrough the Red Sea (Lemche, 2015). God used Moses as hisrepresentative to communicate his laws and decrees. Joshua succeededMoses and was tasked with delivering the nation into the PromisedLand. Nevertheless, the people were constantly warned not to imitatethe behaviors and attitudes of surrounding nations. God proceeded toappoint judges that would settle disputes and provide guidance to theJews (Lemche, 2015). served as the last judge before themonarchy was established. The Israelites manifested a stubborn desireto be respected by the surrounding nations (Lemche, 2015).Consequently, the desire for political relevance led to theestablishment of the monarchy.
Furthermore, the people wanted a human king because had grownold in stature. Surrounding nations had strong and youthful kingswith powerful armies. God had instructed the Israelites to eliminateseven populous nations comprising of the Jebusites, Canaanites,Perizzites, Hivites, Hittites, Amorites, and Girgashites (Lemche,2015). However, the Israelites did not obey this direction since theyallowed some people to continue living around their borders.Consequently, God warned them that they would face constant wars fromthese nations. Rival armies were well-trained and equipped forbattle. The opposing soldiers were seasoned warriors armed withpowerful swords and chariots (Lemche, 2015). Therefore, the monarchywas established since was quite old and could not muster upthe strength to lead the nation in war.
In addition, ’s sons, Joel and Abijah, were quite incompetentto lead the nation successfully. had appointed his sons asjudges in Beersheba (Lemche, 2015). Nonetheless, they abused theirauthority in numerous ways. In particular, they acquired dishonestprofit from poor Israelites. Joel and Abijah accepted bribes fromrich merchants to provide biased rulings. The two judges gainednotoriety for perverting justice in Israel (Lemche, 2015). Hence,Joel and Abijah failed to achieve the moral standards that wereexpected of leaders. They also embarrassed their father through theirlack of integrity. Therefore, the monarchy was established because’s sons could not be trusted as cultural leaders.
Political, social, and religious factors have had a fundamentalimpact on the development of Near Eastern nations in the Arab Spring.For example, many people were exasperated by the authoritative natureof monarchies (Stepan & Linz, 2013). Hence, civilians developed adesire for greater independence. Most of the nations in the ArabSpring were governed by Sharia law. The governments would dictatepublic affairs while clamping down on dissent (Stepan & Linz,2013). Leaders such as Hosni Mubarak in Egypt and Muammar Gadhafi inLibya restricted opposers and performed human rights abuses. TheTunisian government was notable for spying on citizens (Stepan &Linz, 2013). Consequently, many people decided to launch riots andprotests against the perceived increase in oppression.
Young people in the Arab Peninsula were disillusioned by the highrates of unemployment (Hussain & Howard, 2013). The governmentswould often deny basic rights to their citizens at the expense ofpleasing foreigners. Educated and eligible workers could not bear tocontinue living without jobs. Furthermore, governments were riddledwith corruption scandals. In many instances, public funds were lootedand siphoned into offshore accounts. For instance, the Mubarak familywas shown to have stolen plenty of money that crippled the government(Hussain & Howard, 2013). Besides, the proliferation of socialmedia allowed the uprisings to intensify. Riot leaders would use theplatform to organize daily protests and demonstrations (Wolfsfeld,Segev, & Sheafer, 2013). Social media also provided anopportunity for many people to unite behind a common message ofrevolution (Wolfsfeld et al., 2013). Therefore, the Arab Spring wasenhanced by social media and high unemployment.
Indeed, the Arab Spring was influenced by factors such as socialmedia, authoritarian rule, corruption, and unemployment. Manycivilians were disillusioned by the violation of basic human rights.Young people were motivated to join the uprisings due to the lack ofemployment opportunities. Furthermore, the governments were guilty ofperpetrating corruption through the stealing of public funds. Socialmedia also played a fundamental role in uniting people behind acommon agenda. In this regard, protest organizers were able to garnermassive support and coordinate riots. On the other hand, the monarchyin ancient Israel was established due to a desire to imitatesurrounding nations. People also wanted to have human leaders withintegrity, unlike ’s sons. Similarly, the successful riots inTunisia sparked other uprisings in the Arab Peninsula.
Hussain, M. M., & Howard, P. N. (2013). What best explainssuccessful protest cascades? ICTs and the fuzzy causes of the ArabSpring. International Studies Review, 15(1), 48-66.
Lemche, N. P. (2015). Ancient Israel (5th ed.). NewYork, NY: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Stepan, A., & Linz, J. J. (2013). Democratization Theory and the"Arab Spring". Journal of Democracy, 24(2),15-30.
Wolfsfeld, G., Segev, E., & Sheafer, T. (2013). Social media andthe Arab Spring: Politics comes first. The International Journalof Press/Politics, 18(2), 115-137.
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