Screening Guidelines for Prostate Cancer
SCREENING GUIDELINES FOR PROSTATE CANCER 4
ScreeningGuidelines for Prostate Cancer
ScreeningGuidelines for Prostate Cancer
Screeningguidelines of prostate cancer refers to the steps that are taken toidentify cancer before a person develops any clinical symptoms. Thesescreening guidelines are very significant as it helps to find cancerat an early stage and appropriate action taken. For instance, whenthe screening has been done, and abnormal tissues found that can helpin early treatment(Catalona et al., 2017)Therefore, screening does not wait until the symptoms appear sincethat might implies that cancer has spread. Therefore, the primarypurpose of the paper is to identify two screening guidelines andevaluate their differences and similarities. The paper will alsodiscuss resources that can help in adherence to screening guidelinesin the target population.
Similarityin the Screening Guidelines
Boththe Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Trans-rectal ultrasound andtheir screening guidelines help to detect prostate cancer it canhelp to distinguish between men who have and those who do not havecancer. Additionally, these screening guidelines are used alongsideother techniques to assist in determining if cancer is present(Catalonaet al., 2017).Both the guidelines allow screening of young men who are found belowthe age of 40 years and routine screening of men aged 40-45 yearssince they are at high risk of prostate cancer. Men who are aged55-69 are advised to make shared decision making regarding variousscreening and procedures at an interval of two years and this dependon the preferences and values (Catalonaet al., 2017).
Differencein the Screening Guidelines
Accordingto trans-rectal ultrasound screening guidelines, it utilizes soundwaves to help generate pictures of a man’s prostate gland, and thatassist in diagnosing symptoms such as the problem in urinating.Similarly, trans-rectal ultrasound screening guidelines requiredetection of abnormalities and determine if the glands are enlarging(Lee et al., 2016). Screening guideline requires real-time imagesthat can be used for immediate diagnosis. On the other hand,prostate-specific antigen (PSA) guideline is used by the physiciansto measure the quantity of prostate-specific antigen in the blood.Additionally, for the diagnosis to be conducted, PSA is introducedinto the man’s blood through the prostate gland (Lee et al., 2016).PSA is used for further examination when other guidelines fail todetect cancer. Additionally, PSA helps in monitoring prostate cancerduring treatment and active surveillance, for example, when thelevels of PSA increases that is an indication of cancer spreading orgrowing. On the other hand, trans-rectal ultrasound application inthe medicine entails cathode-ray tubes, sound-waves generators, andPolaroid photography (Lee et al., 2016).
Resourcesto Help Adherence to Screening Guidelines in the Target Population
Ithas been established that public adherence to prostate cancerscreening is very poor. Such problems are encountered since patientsare confused over multiple recommendations and modalities forprostate cancer screening (Reddy et al., 2016). These have been foundto be a significant challenge to prostate cancer screening adherence.Moreover, these problems are expected to persist if the screeningguidelines and timetables become individualized. Therefore, thefollowing resource can be implemented to help adherence to screeningguidelines in the target population such as two-way rich media mobilemessaging. That resource is significant since it is based onpersonalized risk assessment (Reddy et al., 2016).
Screeningguidelines are determined by the type of method applied to diagnoseprostate cancer. Similar, some of these guidelines are similar, forinstance, they specify different age brackets and their frequency onhow they should be screened.
Catalona,W. J., Richie, J. P., Ahmann, F. R., M`liss, A. H., Scardino, P. T.,Flanigan, R. C., … & Waters, W. B. (2017). Comparison ofdigital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in theearly detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinicaltrial of 6,630 men. TheJournal of urology,197(2),S200-S207.
Reddy,A. G., Shenoy, D., Packianathan, S., Giri, S., & Vijayakumar, S.(2017). Abstract C85: Do African-American veterans need distinct“Prostate Cancer Screening Guidelines” to overcome outcomedisparities?.
Lee,J. H., Kim, H. K., Lim, E., & Hielscher, A. H. (2016, April).Development of a Rotatable Optical Probe for Trans-rectal UltrasoundCoupled Diffuse Optical Tomography imaging of Prostate Cancer. InOpticalTomography and Spectroscopy(pp. JM3A-5). Optical Society of America.
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