WhereDo Stereotypes Originate
Astereotype is a thought embraced about a particular type of person orcertain habits of undertaking things (Bar-Tal,Graumann & Stroeber, 2013).The thought might be distant from expressing the reality. Concerningthat, there are numerous explanations used to validate the origin ofstereotypes. One of them is the social learning theory. In in asimpler form, stereotypes originate from areas such as the media, ourpeers, parents, and cultural beliefs. Factors closely associated andrelated to an individual tend to shape their way of thinking. It’swith the aim of making them feel the need to fit in a group toachieve acceptance.
Theother origin of stereotypes is from cognitive psychology. People feelthe need to categorize the society into neat and understandabledetails. After one obtains the required fit, there is no showing ofconcern about the rest of the individual members of the group. Thesituation saves processing time and satisfies the need that comeswith understanding and predicting the social world. Moreover, ingroup favorability bias arises (Bar-Tal,Graumann & Stroeber, 2013).
FactorsInvolved in Maintaining the Beliefs
Withrelation to stereotypes, there are certain factors involved thatensure maintenance of the mentality. Among them is the limitedinformation processing abilities. Despite facing a complexenvironment, humans encounter the challenge of a limit in effortfulthought. To simplify the obstacles they face in comprehendingsomeone`s traits they prefer to use stereotypes that serve tomaintain prejudicial attitudes (Bar-Tal,Graumann & Stroeber, 2013).
Theother factor is on cultural learning. People adapt the prejudicialand stereotypical beliefs from their families and close membersbefore encountering someone from an out-group (Bar-Tal,Graumann & Stroeber, 2013).On top of that, the issue of using others to blame for ownmisfortunes when they are not pleased with themselves comes intoplay. Competition for scarce resources also contributes to the socialproblem.
of Chapter 8 and 13
Chapter8 deals with topics relating to thinking, intelligence, and language.The first issue of the cognitive revolution in psychology elaborateshow information processing and manipulation assists in the thoughtprocess. Interpretation of the phenomena culminated to the rise ofartificial intelligence a crucial field that enables the creation ofmachines that mimic humans.
Thesecond topic deals with thinking that expounds on the meaning of theconcept and its relevance. Additionally, a model is in place to groupmembers of a particular concept. More details emerge onproblem-solving techniques and the most suitable way to aid in thesuccessful implementation. Various forms of reasoning get examinedthat form a framework to abet in arriving at appropriate and decisiveoutcomes. The other area that receives considerate attention is thatof critical thinking and its essence in the undertaking ofactivities.
Thethird topic of the chapter is on intelligence. There is a definitionof the term, and an explanation of the criteria used to meet therelevant test of knowledge. An example of a trial, Stanford-Binettest, gets used to demonstrate its relevance on cultural intelligencemeasure insightfully. The significance of genes is not left out withan objective of trying to shed more light on the topic. Other modelssuch as Sternberg’s Triarchic theory attempt to expound onintelligence from a different dimension related to life skills.Furthermore, the concept of multiple intelligence is among theimportant subtopics studied.
Thefourth topic is on language. Various aspects such as the structurebehind the formation and realization of language are crucial in thediscussion. The role of language and its impact on the mind isanother key concern. The chapter ends by deliberating on the relationbetween thinking, problem-solving and health and wellness.
Onthe other hand, Chapter 13 deals with a myriad of issues such associal cognition, close relationships, social behavior, intergrouprelations, social influence, and social psychology and healthwellness. The first topic on social cognition conveys informationrelating to social perceivers and the self-fulfilling prophecy. Attributions together with theories related to it get an explanationwith the aim of making sense to causes of human behavior. Attributionerrors best shed more light on underestimation and overestimation oftraits as compared to other parameters used. Social informationprocessing attributes such as heuristic explain various humanshortcuts. The self, attitudes and cognitive dissonance theory areother subtopics that attempt to highlight and unearth information onsocial cognition.
Theother topic is on social behavior. The concept of altruism gets putinto perspective and its relation to genetic factors. Also, thesubject of aggression gets attention, and evidence-based approach tobiological and neurological factors are suggested to gain deeperinsights. What is more, psychological and social factors receiveconsiderable attention to come up with validation on aspects such ascross-cultural variation and the culture of honor.
Socialinfluence is the other topic. Conformity together with other factorsthat affect it gets assessed for any links. The viewpoint onobedience is also another important subject discussed, and Milgram`sand Stanford experiments get conducted to illustrate the effects ofcompliance. Deindividuation, social contagion, risky shift, the grouppolarization effect, and groupthink are other important issuespresent in the topic.
Intergrouprelations is the other topic, and it discusses issues such as socialidentity, ethnocentrism, prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination.The matter proposes the most efficient strategy for enhancingintergroup contact. There is also a discussion on the closerelationship. The social exchange theory describes the aspects ofsuccessful relationships and also the issue on attractiveness. Theend of chapter 13 gives insights into social psychology and healthwellness. The risks and impact of social isolations get an assessmentand suitable methods given on how to handle the matter.
Waysto Combat Prejudice
Prejudicerefers to the unjustified negative attitude towards an individual dueto membership of a particular group. It may be as a result of thedifference in affiliation such as sex, religion, and ethnicity fromthe prejudiced individual. Nevertheless, strategies can come in placeto attempt to combat and solve the social issue. One of the ways isthrough intergroup interactions. They facilitate a decrease inprejudicial sentiments through a specified type of communicationbetween the two parties. The method gets further split into threedistinct parts namely interdependence, intergroup contact, and socialidentity. Their overall goal is to facilitate interactions whichteach on focusing on an individual’s unique characteristics ratherthan set norms (Smith,Mackie, & Claypool, 2014).
Theother way to solve the issue of prejudice is through individualapproaches. The method allows one to solely come into contact withrelevant details or take part in an activity that intends to lowerbias. The tasks target one`s feelings and aim at shaping them.Subsequently, the thoughts are another area considered with the aimof altering the present perceptions and judgments. The methodinvolves gradual implementation while assessing the results (Smith,Mackie, & Claypool, 2014).
Integratedapproaches are the other way to deal with the issue. They incorporateboth individual and the intergroup. More often, the method involvessome form of entertainment and reading interventions. The two wayshighlight the positive interactions between the different parties byfocusing on characteristics rather than membership. It leads topositive attitudes on the stigmatized party (Smith,Mackie, & Claypool, 2014).
Bar-Tal,D., Graumann, C. F., Kruglanski, A. W., & Stroebe, W. (Eds.).(2013). Stereotypingand prejudice: Changing conceptions.Springer Science & Business Media.
Smith,E. R., Mackie, D. M., & Claypool, H. M. (2014). Socialpsychology.Psychology Press.
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Yabloand Field (2007) found that Thai students had a high rate ofself-reported altruistic behaviors. Which of the following reasonsdid they cite as the most important one to explain thisphenomenon?d. Religion (Kassin,Fein, and Markus 421).Levineand others (2005) conducted an experiment in which a jogger waswearing a t-shirt that was either the same as the participant’sfavorite soccer team, the t-shirt of a rival team, or a neutralt-shirt. The jogger fell in front of the participant, appearing tosustain an injury. Participants wered. Both less likely to helpa jogger wearing a rival shirt and more likely to help a joggerwearing their own team’s shirt (448). Research suggests thatthe bystander effecta. Can occur with online and virtual groupsas well as in-person groups (Kassin,Fein, and Markus 406).Forgasand others (2008) conducted a study on whether the mood ofsalespeople would affect their tendency to help. The resultsindicated thatb. The mood manipulation had the strongest effecton the least experienced staff (Kassin,Fein, and Markus 416).Muriel,who is generally a happy person, becomes quite sad to find out thatshe failed her psychology exam. When her roommate asks Muriel for aride to the airport, Muriel shoulda. Be more likely to help(Kassin,Fein, and Markus 420).
Kassin,Saul, Steven Fein, and Hazel Rose Markus. SocialPsychology: Readings.Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2013.
Levine,Mark, et al. "Identity and emergency intervention: How socialgroup membership and inclusiveness of group boundaries shape helpingbehavior." Personalityand Bulletin 31.4(2005): 443-453.
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Iselected "Help Immigrants by Showing How "They" Are"We’’” (Sarah & Michelle, 2015) from SPARQ site tosummarize a research article (Kunst et al., 2015) on the topic.
Immigrationhas recently become a norm in the world which sparked protest incertain countries. In 2015 for instance, there were anti-immigrationprotest in Germany. Immigrants have been interdicted as root causeof violence and terrorism so integration is a solution for cordialrelationship between natives and immigrants. To ensure that this issuccessful the natives from adopted country should participate bymingling with these people and they should not be forced or compelledto choose any culture. Discrimination and segregation should beminimized. For example, in Paris, some the attackers were found tobe Europeans, but many had assumed that it was the Muslims. In theWest, Muslims get radicalized this makes them feel that they do notbelong in the United States (U.S) and Europe. The authorities aredeclining citizens from the Middle East to seek a new beginning, anda U.S House Speaker Ryan called for a pause on federal Syrian refugeeprogram (Sarah & Michelle, 2015). These policies are killing thespirits of the immigrants, and at the same point, it is increasingthe gap between natives and migrants. Immigrants are facing a lot ofchallenges like learning new languages, searching for jobs andlearning new cultures.
Inthis study, an online survey was done where questionnaires wereadministered where by Muslims in Germany and America were interviewedwith a view to get their opinion on their experience as religious andcultural minorities. Qualitative indicators were used to measuresome of the responses received so as to get concrete conclusion.
Thisstudy has combined a couple of methods which are exquisite because itgives accurate, unbiased information since if one method failsanother takes over. The qualitative analysis done gives theresearchers an opportunity to understand the topic better. Also, itoffers a systematic, broad evaluation of the problem. Survey it isflexible, time conserving and not expensive. Use of control groups. Is the best in comparing the data collected, researchers are incontrol of the group and results are relevant than other sources. Quantitative gives a descriptive data and because it uses numbersstatistical testing can be performed.The research methods employedin this study a clear picture of the people aggrieved parties opinionon the study topic. With correct analytical skills and with nobiased judgment on the sample population this can produce the trueimage or correct results (Kunst et al., 2015).
Thisform of methodology provides a lot of information because manymethods are used which enabled gathering information at all angles. One can point out where contradictions occur unlike when using oneform of practice. It gives details on findings and thus enabling oneto generalize and make conclusions. It builds a strong understandingof the topic at hand, and the information is unlimited.
Thisstudy involved natives and immigrants, people of different religions,gender, socioeconomic status and different education backgrounds. The research was done ethically because it entailed incorporation ofall the races on based on research regions (Kunst et al., 2015). Each and every respondent views were considered and his/her viewrespected. Some of the respondents were given information enoughunderstanding before the research like in the case of controlledgroups. It was a success because no conflicts were reported duringthe activity and after publishing the article. The study did notfavor any race but depended on the results of the research.
Berry,J. W., & Sam, D. L. (2013). Accommodating cultural diversity andachieving equity.
Deaux,K., & Verkuyten, M. (2014). The social psychology ofmulticulturalism: Identity and intergroup relations. The Oxfordhandbook of multicultural identity: Basic and applied psychologicalperspectives, 118-138.
Kunst,J. R., Thomsen, L., Sam, D. L., & Berry, J. W. (2015). "Weare in this together": Common group identity predicts majoritymembers` active acculturation efforts to integrate immigrants.Personality and Bulletin, 41, 1438-1453.
Sarah,L.P., & Michelle, G., (2015). “A warmer embrace of Muslimscould stop homegrown terrorism”. The Conversation, Africa Pilot.Retrieved fromhttps://theconversation.com/a-warmer-embrace-of-muslims-could-stop-homegrown-terrorism-50869
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“Self-and Other-Enhancement in Everyday Life”
Whatpossible self-enhancement and other-enhancement strategies could youuse in each of the following situations?
Meeting an adult with no verbal language for the first time.
Self-enhancement:Using non verbal cues such as facial expression, eye contact, bodymovements, posture, and touching. The strategies will enhancecommunication between us.
Other-enhancement:Maintaining positive facial micro-expressions for a long time toavoid creating negative emotions in the adult(Baron,& Branscombe, 2012).Avoid using negative emotions when the person seems not to understandme.
Going on an interview for an internship.
Self-enhancement:Boost my appeal to the interviewers by enhancing my physicalappearance and outlining my abilities.
Other-enhancement:Inducing positive moods among the interviewers without overusing thisstrategy.
Going on an interview for graduate school.
Self-enhancement:Outline my positive traits, principles, values, and abilities to theschool management while also giving very few shortcomings aboutmyself.
Other-enhancement:Create confidence among the school management indicating that amsuited to be in the school.
Meeting your new boss for the first time.
Self-enhancement:Create a positive impression regarding myself by being physicallyappealing and describing myself with the best traits.
Other-enhancement:Invoke his or her confidence on me by listening attentively andtalking only when necessary. Providing suggestion to problems that heor she mentions is also an added enhancement.
Meeting two classmates who will be working with you on a group project, and one of your classmates has a diagnosed learning disability (cognitive impairment).
Self-enhancement:Focusing on their traits and principles while avoiding negativeexpressions towards the cognitive impaired student.
Other-enhancement:Providing suggestions to the problem we are discussing withoutoverruling their ideas. Ensuring that each student is given ampletime to outlay his or her idea.
Meeting a professor in a wheelchair for the first time.
Self-enhancement:Using expressions that show appreciation and gratefulness for thetime he or she has availed to me. Avoid using words that hint todisability.
Other-enhancement:Abhorring from helping him or her when it is not necessary thisshows I am not concentrating on his or her disability but rather onthe issue that necessitated the meeting.
“Differentiatingbetween Errors in Cognition”
Identifythe error in social cognition.
When Shanrita shops at a second-hand store, she wants to avoid purchasing items that have been previously owned by someone with a disability.
When Juan is told not to think about his former girlfriend, he cannot help but think about her even more than before.
When cooking a meal for his father with hypertension, Esau always underestimates how long it will take to cook each item.
When asked about the students in her class, Professor Boseda always talks about the ones who take too much time to answer questions.
When Michael is passed over for a promotion at work, he blames his recent lack of productivity.
Eun-ji always believes that he will receive positive feedback from his boss at his yearly review.
Baron,R., & Branscombe, N. (2012). Socialpsychology (13thed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
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