Historyof the disease
Astroke happens whenever the supply of blood to a section of the brainget affected which deprives the brain nutrients and oxygen. The cellsof the brain start dying almost immediately. The condition is amedical emergence that requires prompt treatment since earlyintervention can reduce the damage to the brain and any otherpotential complications.
Thistype of stroke accounts for averagely 85 percent of all stroke casesand occurs from thinning or blocking of arteries supplying blood tothe brain which leads to severe reduction in blood flow. Embolic andthrombotic stroke are the most prevalent ischemic strokes. Formationof a thrombus in an artery leads to thrombotic stroke. The thrombusrestrains normal supply of blood to parts of the brain. It maydevelop from fatty deposits in arteries which reduce normal flow ofblood. On the other hand, embolic stroke happens when blood clots onother parts of the skull and moves through the blood stream to blocknarrow brain cells.
Also,transient ischemic attack happens from temporal decrease in thesupply of blood to the brain as a result of presence of a clot thatprevents blood from flowing to parts of the brain. However, it doesnot leave permanent damage since the blocked blood flow isshort-term.
Thistype of stroke occurs from a rupture or brain leak of a blood vessel.Conditions such as uncontrolled high blood pressure, overusinganticoagulants, and aneurysms can lead to brain hemorrhage. Anuncommon cause of hemorrhage occurs due to a rupture of an anomaloustangle of a thin-walled blood vessel. Intracerebral and subarachnoidhemorrhages are the two types of hemorrhage. Intracerebral hemorrhageresults from bursting of a blood vessel leading to spilling of theblood into the brain tissues which consequently damages nearby bloodcells. In consequence, this scenario deprives blood from reaching thebrain cells past the burst vessel. Trauma, thinning medications forblood and high blood pressure are among the conditions that can leadto intracerebral hemorrhage. Subarachnoid hemorrhage results frombreaking of an artery outside the brain that spills blood into theskull and the brain surface which is identified by severe headache.
Thesymptoms of stroke range from the patient having trouble speaking andunderstanding, trouble with walking, headache, problems with seeingto numbness of the arm, face, or leg.
Anindividual`s chance of getting stroke can be compounded by variousissues such as the type of lifestyle and medical factors.Lifestylefactors can be summed as lack of physical activity, obesity, heavyalcohol drinking, and illicit drugs such as cocaine (Kernanet al. 2014).The medical risk factors range from obstructive sleep apnea, highlevels of cholesterol in the body, high blood pressure,cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes.
Astroke can cause permanent or temporary disabilities depending on thelength of time the brain is deprived of blood flow and the part ofthe brain that is affected. The complications comprise of paralysis,memory loss, difficulties with talking, and pain.
Treatmentgiven depends on parts of the brain that have been affected and othercauses of similar symptoms such as a drug reaction and brain tumor.Emergency treatment depends on whether the stroke is hemorrhagic orischemic. The patient undergoes through thrombolytictherapy which is a treatment that involves dissolving clots in theblood vessels and preventing further damage to organs (Meschiaet al. 2014).
Kernan,W.N., Ovbiagele, B., Black, H.R., Bravata, D.M., Chimowitz, M.I.,Ezekowitz, M.D.,
Fang,M.C., Fisher, M., Furie, K.L., Heck, D.V. and Johnston, S.C.C.(2014). Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients withstroke and transient ischemic attack. Stroke,45(7),2160-2236.
Meschia,J. F., Bushnell, C., Boden-Albala, B., Braun, L. T., Bravata, D. M.,Chaturvedi, S. &
Goldstein,L. B. (2014). Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke.Stroke,45(12),3754-3832.
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