Study Guide for Midterm -200
StudyGuide for Midterm -200
Theories vs. Ideology
Details that go into each,
Determine which data to collect
Validate our hypotheses
Helps shape methodology
Differences between them
Anideology is a way of interpreting everything in the world while atheory is a generalized thinking informed by a scientific assessment.
What they are
Governmentalstructures, usually sovereign and powerful with a mandate to enforceits rule over a specific territory
How they are created
State-created through a political process and there are many theories onthe same.
Interactions with nations
Statestypically create nations and not the other way round.
Interaction in international relations
Thestate is charged with protecting the life and properties of thepeople from foreign invasion or influences.
Treaty of Wesphalia and its importance
Itwas an agreement made in 1648 in which the involved parties, theRoman Empire, Spain, France, Sweden and the Dutch Republic, agreed torespect each other’s territory.
Types of democracies (direct, indirect and examples of such)
Direct – people decide on policy initiatives directly. Examples include ancient Athens and Town hall meetings in New England etc.
Representative- people decide on policy initiatives through their representatives. Eg. US, and UK where elected representatives vote on behalf of the electorate in the two Houses.
Principles that go into democracy
John Locke- Classic liberalism that is based on the Mercantilism notion that advocates the protection of local industries and economy through tariffs, monopolies, and subsidies to companies.
Thomas Hobbes- state of nature, social compact theory, and natural liberties
Rule of Law- a legal concept that ensures uniform applicability of the law in a given nation as opposed to being controlled by those in government.
Social Compact- an organized society is created and given legitimacy by individuals agreeing in mutual protection and welfare
Leviathan- A book by Hobbes that contains detailed assessment of the different forms of governments (monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy) and their interaction with the social contract theory.
Constitutional principles and practices of the U.S. Constitution
General constitutional principles
rule of law
separation of powers
Equality of all men
American Constitutional principles
A constitutional court charged with interpreting constitutional provisions.
Popular sovereignty where the power rests with the people.
Federalists and the Anti-Federalists
Federalists-support formation of a stronger federal government
Anti-Federalists-opposed the development of a strong federal government
Major Constitutional Amendments. In total, there are 27.
The Bill of Rights that comprises the first 10 amendments (eg. freedom to religion, right to bear arms etc.)
11th amendment that protects states immune from suits from foreigners or persons residing outside the state.
Fourteenth Amendment (1868)- defines citizenship
The most recent is the 27th (1992) on congressional salaries that took over 200 years to ratify.
Federalism (history, theories, structure, powers, and practices)
Definition-system of where two or more levels of government control a giventerritory. In the US, there is the state and the federal government.
History-1789with the revocation of the articlesof Confederation in 1789
Structure- various structures and levels. e.g. US has states while Brazil hasmunicipalities as federal entities.
Powers- Europe has a weakened central body while in America has astrengthened one
Practices-Two governments with different levels of power over a given territory
Public opinion and political culture
Characterizedby approval ratings and opinions polls
Pollsindicate confidence levels
Creation- involvement of residents or citizens in the policy making process
Formulation- Different levels of involvement in making policies
Effects- promotes democracy and gives the people power
Political socialization (sources of it and major points of each source)
Definition:acquisition of political cognition, attitudes, and behaviors.
Sources:Family, media, school, peers, and cultural events.
Points:- Children spend most time with family to learn attitudes andbehaviors
Increased media consumption
Political culture is passed through general peer interactions
Civil society, social capital, and social engagement (have working knowledge of the interactions amongst these concepts)
Civil society- citizens linked by common interests
Social capital -collective value of all "social networks"
Social engagement- degree of participation in a community or society
Civilsocieties enhance political involvement of individuals so that theycan enjoy better government services as a more significant politicalentity.
Citizen, citizenship, and citizenry (history, terms & concepts, and importance of these terms to democracy and contemporary times)
Citizen- legally recognized subject of a state of nation. Term originates from an Anglo-Norman word.
Citizenship- a bond that extends kinship and genetics to show connection membership to state.
-Strengthenedby political culture.
Citizenry- collective term for citizens.
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