Themosaic above depicts the images of the Great Emperor Justinian andhis wife, Theodora. They are found inside the roof wall of the Churchof San Vitale in Italy and point to the works of art of greatarchitects and artists hired by the Emperor, himself. The portrait issaid to have been made in the 6thcentury, and it opens the pathway into an exploratory study o thelife of one of the greatest emperors in the history of late ByzantineEmpire and his wife. According to Lane (p.1), Theodora was one of thegreatest pillars or backbones to the leadership of Justinian, andthis is remembered by her courageous role in helping the emperor torebuild the empire and expand it from its original invasion by theBarbarians. Looking at its exquisite use of oil paint by the artistand the way it is presented in the ceiling of one of the dorms of theChurch in San Vitala, Revana Rome, I can only imagine the type ofaudience it was meant to appeal to, in those days and now. Thepainting reminds the world of the path Byzantine empire had to fightthe battle of Iberia among others to remain active among its alliesas it conquered more territories in order to gain more taxes. Thegreatest audience of this painting are historians and lovers of artand literature especially those from the western European nations.
WhyI chose the picture?
Modernart lacks the delicate representation of how history evolved duringthe medieval times. Nonetheless, the images that tend to appear fromone place to the other induce so much thinking that at the end of itall, an individual may miss the real point that the artist wanted toportray in the painting. Justinian and Theodora is a portrait thatreminds the world of how the great emperor had to overcome challengesfrom both the Persians and his men in the two events of Nika riotsand Iberia war respectively. Being a member of the Orthodox Christianfaith, Justinian had to face opposition from Islam during the Iberianbattle, but he was able to conquer all opposition by the help of hiscommander and advice from Theodora as believed (Mr. Giotto’s site1). Also, during the riots between the blues and greens, the emperorwas almost deposed and chose to escape, but it was his wife whoadvised him otherwise, and he chose to remain and continue in hisdevelopment of the empire.
Thewar was waged between 526 and 532 AD, and it was against the SassanidEmpire that was under the leadership of Persian shah Kavadhi I (Mr.Giotto’s site 1).The peace treaty of 532AD ended the war andushered in a period of relative peace. During the war, both powerswere fighting using the Arab allies in the south and also Hun in theNorth. Justinian managed to offer some hostilities to the Persians inDara and Satala and captured Persamenia but lost in Callinicum. Allthese events can be traced back by just observing the picture ofTheodore and Justinian which tend to point out for more inquiry intothe life of the greatest man and woman in the history of late RomanEmpire. It is important that Theodora remained influential even thoseRoman empire was mainly patriarchal. Additionally, Justinian isviewed as one of the most classical leaders in history even thoughhis reign was short.
Lane,Jim. “Renaissance cities-Constantinople.” ArtNow and Then,2013. Web. 9 April 2017.
Mr.Giotto’s site. “Emperor Justinian and The Byzantine Empire.”Penfield.edu,(nd). Web. 9 April 2017.
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Gesturesin Nonverbal Communication
Thehuman gestural repertoire consists of both symbolic gestures andemblems. These two subsets of nonverbal communication define theextent at which the popular rational discourse may reach in the globe(Xu et al., 20664). The two, gestures and emblems, play a significantrole in human communication and it is understood that they can takethe place of words in any functional human interaction. The UnitedStates is governed by several forms of gestures that govern both itssymbolic interactions as well as emblem meanings. A good example isthe horn fingers gesture which is culturally used by rock stars tosignify approval (Busuu, “What Hand Gestures Mean in DifferentCountries”). The same hand gesture is used in other nations such asPortugal and Italy to signify a cheating wife to a husband. Meaning,there are some gestures which may mean peace in one country, but whenthey travel the globalized cultural world, they may be used to meanwar or something so evil. Nonetheless, the present research paperaims to locate the same gestures, among others, in the US and try toshow how they could be used to mean an entirely different thing inother countries of the world.
1.The Horn Fingers
Thehorn fingers gesture is the most important sign attached to rockersand even teenagers across America. The sign is used in all areas ofcommunication to indicate approval of something or someone. The signis used in Italy, Spain, and Portugal to tell someone that their wifeis cheating on them.
2.Come Here/Index Finger beckoning
Whentraveling abroad, it is sagacious for someone to understand thelimitations in applying gestures or emblems such as calling someone.In America, it is acceptable for someone to beckon their index fingerwhen calling someone to come closer to them. The label is quiteelegant and is culturally acceptable everywhere in the country. Butwhen it is applied in countries such as the Philippines, anindividual can be arrested because the sign is applicable in callingdogs only and not human beings. The best way to call some is to raiseyour right arm parallel to the ground, and the palm facing you, then,you can move the palm towards your face together with the whole handas you call the person.
3.The OK Symbol
Indeveloped nations such as the US, and the UK among others, the use ofthe OK fingers shows that everything is okay, great or even accordingto plan. In Brazil, the sign is taken to refer to mean somethingobscene. A good example is how the President, Nixon Carter used thesign in that country and was met with rude boos all over the countryfrom an angry mob (Busuu, “What Hand Gestures Mean in DifferentCountries”).
Asa rule, crossed fingers are always applied in every corner of theworld to indicate that, someone, is praying for some good luck orbetter omen. Indeed, the sign is used in countries like the US andeven other European nations. But to people’s dismay, the sign isvery insulting in a country like Paraguay.
5.The Index Finger to the Lips
Inthe United States, when an individual places their index finger ontotheir lower lip it is taken to mean that the person is asking hisrespondent to remain silent. Being that this is an emblem, it isquite obvious to understand that the context of its applicationdefines its meaning. In other countries, such as Ireland, England,and Italy, the same sign could be used to mean that the person hasunderstood the information being provided. The sign is used to showunderstanding of the context of information being passed across in anattentive manner.
Thegestures that are probably able to create a public uproar in othercountries are like the horn fingers, the index finger beckoning andthe crossing of fingers. The horn fingers in their application withinItaly, Portugal and Spain indicate that someone’s wife has beenseen cheating on the husband. At that point, there is no point oftalking too much. Instead, one can be beaten up mercilessly, or evenarrested to explain further with evidence depending on the husband’stemperament.
Whenthe index finger is used for beckoning a individual as identifiedabove, there is trouble because it can only be applicable in callingdogs. When applied in Asian nations, it is assumed that the dogs’owner is calling them and someone can take it to believe that theyare being insulted as being dogs. In the Philippines an arrestwarrant can be given depending on the person it is applied to in thatcountry.
Accordingto Calero, the biggest challenge faced by Americans is the use ofnonverbal signs such as gestures (116). When an American travels to aSouth America in a country such as Paraguay, he should be sure neverto cross his finger to indicate ‘good luck.’ The good luck signmay turn into public ridicule, insults or even being beaten. Thecrossed fingers, according to Calero, refer to what Americansconsider to be the meaning of using the middle finger to a fellowAmerican. It, therefore, means that there is a need for care in usingsuch emblems in countries like Paraguay.
Thedemonstration of gestures or emblems in the US is entirely symbolicand one that requires special attention when someone travels abroad.In countries such as Spain, Italy, and Portugal, the horn fingersshould be avoided at all cost because someone can lose his life forindicating that a wife is cheating on her husband. In Asia, thebeckoning or call sign of using the index finger should be dreaded atall times. Also, in Paraguay, the crossed finger should not be usedbecause it may mean what Americans understand as the significance ofusing the middle finger. Therefore, caution is to be applied in usingthese nonverbal communication signs across the globe.
Busuu. “What Hand Gestures Mean in Different Countries.” Busuu.com.2017. Web. 3 March 2017.
Calero,Henry, R. ThePower of Non-Verbal Communication: How You Act is More ImportantThan What You Say. California:Silver Lake Publishing, 2005. Print.
Xu,Jiang, Gannon, Patrick J., Emmorey, Karen, Smith, Jason and Braun,Allen, R. Symbolic gestures and Spoken Language Are Processed by A Common NeuralSystem. PNAS, 106, 49(2009):20664-669.Print.
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Principlesof Electromagnetism in Television Operation
Themodern day television is a useful technology in expanding knowledgecapacities and not just to destroy values in people. As a rule, thecurrent video looks at the basic principles of electromagnetismespecially those associated with how the television airs itsmultimedia images to the public for learning and entertainmentpurposes. It looks at two main topics, movement of charged particlesacross a magnetic field and how they influence image formation intelevision. Other than that, the paper locates more emphasis on theright-hand rule and points that it guides electron movement in anymagnetic field of operation, especially, in television.
Themovement of charged particles in a magnetic field forms the basis ofany television service. The video dates back to the invention ofHenrick Geissler who developed vacuum tube that was later called,Geissler tubes. The tubes could illuminate when coated with somechemicals (Physics- Electromagnetism how a television works,‘YouTube’). Then it looks at works of Sir. William Crooks, who,it says, was very active in chemical research. He made and designedvarious tubes, for example, the Crooks tube which he used to explorethe Geissler tube illuminations. The tube was then calledphosphorescence. It is a tube which has air removed to form a vacuum.Three electronic materials are placed at each end. The farthest endis a coil of wire commonly referred to as the Cathode. It isconnected to a negative end of a power supply. At the other end, ascreen is attached to a positive supply of power called anode and isconverted with Zinc-Sulphide and Copper. A plate is placed betweenthe cathode and the anode. When different electric power is supplied,the screen glowed, and a non-glowing image of the plate will bevisible on the screen, as well. Crooks thought that the cathode wasemitting some first rays which he called the cathode rays which madethe image to be seen on the screen. In 1897, JJ Thompson discoveredthat cathode rays were streams of magnetic particles that carried anegative charge (Physics- Electromagnetism how a television works,‘YouTube’). The particles were 200,000 times lighter than thehydrogen atom, and he called them, electrons. Besides, the videopoints out that, in the conventional current, charged particles movefrom the positively charged end to the negative but in the Crook’scase it was opposite (Physics- Electromagnetism how a televisionworks, ‘YouTube’).
Whenthe moving electron beams shift from the cathode to the anode, theyexperience a force created by both horizontal and vertical magnets inthe magnetic field. The strength of the magnets helps to explain theright-hand rule. The force causes a change in the direction of motionof the electron stream. When the stream of particles moves through amagnetic field with a north pole behind the stream and the south polein front, the fingers of a right hand are then pointed in theopposite direction. It is the direction of conventional current. Theright-hand fingers are turned in the direction of the magnetic fieldfrom north to south. The thumb finger then points up indicating thedirection of the force of the stream of electrons. The magnitude ofthe force(F) depends on that of the charge(q), the speed of electronsmotion(v) and the magnetic field size (B), all expressed in theformula F= q. v. B.
Acolored screen has three electron beams that move together across thescreen unlike one in the black and white television. Their names arered, blue, and green beams, respectively. Also, the screen is coatedwith three red, blue and green phosphors unlike one found in theblack and white television. Next to the anode tube is a shadow maskthat has small holes which are aligned to control the phosphors. Inorder to create a white dot, the three phosphors are fired together.
Electromagneticfields help the motion of negatively charged particles or electronsto move from cathode to anode thereby creating an illumination onscreen. Using, the right-hand rule, the force responsible forcontrolling the direction of these particles is understood. That ishow the modern day television operates but other beams on the anodehelp define the colors.
“Physics-Electromagnetism:How a Television Works.” YouTube,uploaded by EducationcomonsRW, 25th,Sept 2010, http://youtu.be/ycq-3dHPyFI.Accessed on 31st March 2017.
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Ata time when Socrates and Aeschylus were in their expansivephilosophical empowerment of the Greek intellects, while at the sametime Prophet Zechariah and Haggai were influencing Jews to return toJerusalem, China was witnessing the birth of a new philosophy inplace. The philosophy of ethical humanism as professionalized byConfucius was based on two main pillars Jen and Li (Philosophylander.edu, ‘Oriental Philosophy’). The two concepts ofConfucianism primary concern was on developing the aspects ofholistic human-heartedness, or benevolence and social order,respectively. These two principles were what defined the father ofmodern Chinese culture, Confucius in his educational and politicalemancipation of the warlords that terrorized old Chinese peasantlivelihood. He believed that the ‘princes’ could one day changetheir lives and look at society in a different manner as opposed tothe oppressive way they conquered nations and villages in old Chinesedynasties (All about Philosophy, ‘Life of Confucius’). Thecurrent paper, therefore, aims to extrapolate on the life andachievements of Confucius in his life within ancient China towardshis ideas on Confucianism.
Onecan never understand Confucianism without getting to know the mainprinciples that govern the philosophy. According to Confucius, thetwo most important concepts that guide the philosophy are Jenand Li.Jen refers to the spirit of humanity or being good to one another.The other principle looks at the social order of things in society orrather propriety. People need to understand that every action they doaffect someone else. Other than Jenand Lihe deduced the concept of Yi.In this one, he said that every human has the moral disposition tobehave and do well to one another. At this point, the idea ofrighteousness as that expressed in Kant’s philosophy of ethics waswell expressed in the opinion. Others are Hsiaowhich locates meaning to reverence or filial piety. For instance, inthe five relationships, children ought to obey their parents becausethey sacrificed so much for them. The beginnings of Jen are found inrespect or family life or Hsiao.
Theother concept was Chihwhich he explained as that moral wisdom which people posses forknowing right from wrong. The other idea in Confucianism is Chun-Tzuwhich refers to an ideal man or the gentleman. Finally, was the ideaof Tewhich, relates to the power by which men are always ruled. In this,he believed that the government could be right if it sustains,economic, and military sufficiency and also the confidence of itspeople. In all these concepts the philosophy of Confucianismexpounded.
Confuciuswas born in the year 551 BC from a low-income family in the east partof northern China called Lu.His original name was K’ungCh’iu,and in his teenage life, he had an administrative position with somelocal noble in his hometown where he managed agricultural accounts.It is believed that his passion for ethical philosophy started todevelop during his service years. In his adult life, he began movingaround China teaching the warlords about his philosophy, hoping thatthey could change China from the feudal militaristic system topeaceful and virtuous one.
Hebelieved that the `princes` of China should not be controlled by theegos, desire for power and oversight but through selflessness for thepeople because a higher being offered them those positions. Instead,he was rejected, and that is why he returned to his hometown andstarted to teach to the oppressed the ideas of his philosophy in hisfree school. He taught leadership, history, psychology, ethics andeven arts, in the school. He was able to train young men to take upleadership positions in government and by that he transformed Chinacompletely through education and ethics. Politics was a mechanism tochange China through philosophy and by 478 BC he was regarded as thegreatest alongside Buddha (All about Philosophy, ‘Life ofConfucius’).
Achievementsto Society and Life
Bybeing rejected by entrenched warlords, he decided to focus on hiseducational career by winning the hearts of the oppressed peoplewherever he went. He made many disciples, and although he continuedon this path till his death, his political career never saw the lightof the day. The warlords continued in the feudal nature by heavilytaxing peasants and this never impressed him at any given moment.That is why he trained the youth to take up leadership positions ingovernment in the humanistic way leading to the birth of modernChina.
Inhis home return, Confucius became an educationalist. As Fung (p.48)points out, Confucius was the first man in the history of China tomake the art of teaching profession. In doing so, he popularizedChinese culture and education, and this opened the way for theseveral succeeding scholars as well as philosophers who camecenturies later.
Besides,the class of gentleman was inaugurated and developed by the samephilosopher in the history of the Chinese world. According to him, hesaw no reason for withholding instructions to a warlord, a farmer, amerchant or even to an actual government official (Fung 49). Hisideas on humanity and benefit defined the culture of China in theirappreciation of nature and the other beings.
Confucianismis believed to have started by the teachings of Confucius on themeaning of humanity and benefit for all. He thought politics couldtransform China and that is why he trained young men to take uppositions in government and lead in ethical and humanistic manner.His works rate him higher as those done by Socrates in the “Allegoryof the Cave” and what prophets Zechariah and Haggai did for theJews in the Bible. China owes its intellectual wisdom culture to theworks of a poor peasant called Confucius.
Allabout Philosophy. Lifeof Confucius.Allaboutphilisohy.org, 2017,www.allaboutphilosophy.org/life-of-confucius.htm. Accessed 31stMarch 2017.
Fung,You-lan. AHistory of Chinese Philosophy, Volume 1-From the beginnings to Circa 100B.C.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983. Print.
PhilosophyLander.edu. Philosophy312: Oriental Philosophy Main Concepts of Confucianism.P.l.e, (nd), philosophy.lander.edu/oriental/main.html.Accessed 31st March 2017.
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