Substance Abuse and Case Management
SubstanceAbuse and Case Management
SubstanceAbuse and Case Management
Substanceabuse is among controversial issues in the contemporary world. Mostof the affected persons are youths, which are energetic and expectedto contribute towards economic growth. The term substance abuse isused to describe the issue of overindulgence of an individual in anaddictive substance, such as drugs or alcohol (Penzenstadler,Machado, Thorens, Zullino & Khazaal, 2017). Case management, onthe other hand, refers to a collaborative process involving theevaluation, coordination, and education of chemically dependentpeople, with the objective of enhancing quality in the treatmentprocess (Penzenstadler etal.,2017). This paper will advance an argument that the treatment ofsubstance dependence is complex, but the case management processleads to successful therapy.
Prevalenceand Trends in Substance Abuse
Substanceabuse is a global phenomenon that affects all countries in thecontemporary world. Prevalence of cases of substance abuse isextremely high in both developed and developing nations. A studyfocusing different regions indicated that the prevalence of cases ofabuse of alcohol is 86.3 % in the Netherlands, 71.6 % in Canada, 71.7% in the U.S., 66.1 % in Brazil, and 64.9 % in Germany (Vega,Aguilar-Gaxiola, Andrade, Bijl, Borges, Anduaga & DeWit, 2014).Trends indicate that the age at which substance use has been reducedwith time, following the increase in the availability of substances.For example, a researched conducted by Qadri, Singh, Ahliuwalia,Pathak & Bashir, 2013) showed that over 60 % of the schoolchildren aged between 13 and 19 years in Indian have abused at leastone type of drug in their lifetime, while 34.93 % of them have usedsubstances more than once. Therefore, incidents of substance abuseare more prevalent among the young people, but those who get addictedproceed with this problem to the later stages of development.
TheNeed for Case Management in Addressing Substance Abuse
Substanceabuse should be considered as a health concern, and not carelessnesson the part of the drug addict. Drugs cause addiction, which leads tothe lack of capacity of an individual to make decisions. By damagingthe brain, addictive substances limit the ability of the addicts toget themselves out of the trouble, which creates the need for theintervention of competent case managers. The disease model ofsubstance abuse holds that addiction causes changes in the biologicalstructure as well as the functionality of the human brain, whichoccurs by hijacking the reward center (Penzenstadler etal.,2017). This makes the addicts to depend on drugs to find satisfactionin life and function properly. Recovering from this health challengeis not an event, but a process that can only be successful with theaid of a competent case manager.
BestPractices in Case Management in the Context of Substance Abuse
Thetreatment of substance abuse is quite a complex process that does notguarantee a successful recovery. Its success may be determined bydifferent factors, including the competence of the case manager andthe practiced adopted during the treatment process. One of thecurrent studies shows that the relapse rate for addicts who have beentreated ranges from 20 % to 60 % (Kuria, 2013). This wide variationindicates that the ability of individual case managers to adopt andapply the best practices varies. Observation of the best practices incase management increases the probability of a successful recoverywhile minimizing the risk of relapse.
Thereare three best strategies that can contribute towards the success ofthe case management process. First, the case manager should begin theprocess of treatment by determining the complexity of the client’sneeds. According to Penzenstadler etal. (2017)most of the people who are chemically dependent can recoversuccessfully from the case management, but there are certain groupsthat required integrated approaches depending on their level ofcomplexity. For example, the limited experience and chronological ageof young adults makes their treatment more complex, which calls foradditional assistance of a competent case manager. In addition,chemically dependent persons who are characterized by prolonged drugabuse and recovery attempts are difficult to treat. However, thesupplemental assistance from the case manager, coupled with continuedtreatment can increase the chances of recovery. Other groups thatrequire a supplemental assistance from the case manager include olderadults, persons with medical as well as legal issues, and chemicallydependent people with co-occurring diagnosis.
Secondly,competence case managers enhance the effectiveness of the therapeuticprocess by engaging their clients. Engagement is achieved bydemonstrating the desire to meet the immediate needs of the clientsand building trust with them (Kuria, 2013). The primary objective ofclient engagement is to reduce external as well as internal barriersto therapy. The approach used by case managers to facilitateengagement varies depending on the needs the client. For example,providing food to a hungry addict creates a perception that the casemanager has the good intention of assisting the chemically dependentperson. This creates a platform on which a warm interaction can takeplace, which allows the case manager to collect information about theseverity of addiction and the best way to address the underlyingproblem (Penzenstadler etal.,2017). This enables the case manager to meet the specific needs ofthe client, thus increasing the probability of a successful recoveryand limited chances of relapse.
Third,competent case managers should be able to assess the capacity of thechemically dependent persons to look for treatment servicesindependently. The primary goal of the case manager in the context ofsubstance abuse it to empower addicts by enabling them to look forprofessional help and address the underlying problems that subjectthem to the risk of abusing drugs (Penzenstadler etal.,2017). In other words, the main focus of the case management processis to help the affected persons learn how they can access theservices independently. The needs of the client may vary from familysupport to medical interventions. The two major types of skills thatthe case manager seeks to identify include service procurement andvocational. The service procurement skills may include the capacityof the client to apply for the government benefits, go for medicalservices, and utilize the social services agencies (Kuria, 2013). Theaction that the case manager takes depends on the skills that arepossessed by the client.
BenefitsAssociated With the Involvement of the Case Manager in the Treatmentof Substance Abuse
Casemanagers are trained individuals who are able to provide thechemically dependent persons with detailed information regardingtheir respective conditions. They are also able to inform them aboutthe possible therapeutic options and suggest the best ways in whichthe addiction can be combated. There are four key benefits ofinvolving case managers in the process of treating addiction thatresults from substance abuse. First, the services offered by casemanagers enhance medical adherence, which leads to successfultreatment (Penzenstadler etal.,2017). Case managers increase adherence by providing supplementalservices to the affected persons and making follow-ups to ensure thatthey are able to seek for services or help independently.
Secondly,the involvement of case managers boosts self management skills thatthe chemically dependent individuals require in order to actindependently (Penzenstadler etal.,2017). The self-management skills are an indication of the fact thatthe clients have gained the capacity to resolve their own healthissues, but with a minimum assistance of the professionals.
Third,effective case management is associated with an increase in theoverall quality of care. The level of quality of care is determinedby the ability of providers to meet the specific needs of theirclients (Penzenstadler etal.,2017). The case managers contribute towards this goal by using theirknowledge and experience to assess the needs of the clients andproviding them with the information about the available therapeuticoptions.
Fourth,case management is instrumental in the treatment of addiction becauseit increases the satisfaction of both the caregiver and theirclients. Satisfaction is achieved when both parties achieve theirgoals (Penzenstadler etal.,2017). Case managers contribute towards this satisfaction bychemically dependent individual approach the right caregivers, whichincreases the chances for a successful therapy.
Substanceabuse is a major challenge in the contemporary world, but theinvolvement of case management contributes towards the success of thetherapeutic process. The prevalence of the addiction varies dependenton age and regions. People who are chemically dependent are helpless,which creates the need for the intervention of case managers whoguide them in seeking for effective treatment. Therefore, theintegration of the concept of case management leads to thesatisfaction of the addict and the caregiver.
Kuria,M. (2013). Factors associated with relapse and remission of alcoholdependent persons for after community based treatment. OpenJournal of Psychiatry,3, 264-272.
Penzenstadler,L., Machado, A., Thorens, G., Zullino, D. & Khazaal, Y. (2017).Effect of case management intervention for patients with substanceuse disorder: A systematic review. FrontiersPsychiatry,8 (51), 1-9.
Qadri,S., Singh, J., Ahliuwalia, S., Pathak, R. & Bashir, H. (2013).Prevalence and pattern of substance abuse among school children inNorthern India: A rapid assessment study. InternationalJournal of Medical Science and Public Health,2 (2), 273-281.
Vega,A., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Andrade, L., Bijl, R., Borges, G., Anduaga,C. & DeWit, J. (2014). Prevalence and age of onset for drug usein seven international sites. Qucosa,1, 1-17.
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