SUPERPOWERS AND THE THIRD WORLD ACTIONS FOR `SUPERPOWERS AND THE THIRD
SUPERPOWERSAND THE THIRD WORLD ACTIONS FOR `SUPERPOWERS AND THE THIRD WORLD
SUPERPOWERSAND THE THIRD WORLD ACTIONS FOR `SUPERPOWERS AND THE THIRD WORLD`
Powerand influence on the contemporary world scene need attention to boththe influence of the superpowers on the minor powers and the latter’sinfluence on the former. That, therefore, necessitates theestablishment of a mutual influence that needs the attention fromboth sides of the equation. A cold war ensued at the time when therewere lots of ideological and political conflicts amongst the twosuperpowers. Nonetheless, there was not any confrontation between thetwo nations.1The competition over the “sphere of influence” was characterizedby propaganda, proxy wars, and the arms race. It is at the time,during the cold war, that Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was formed. Itstarted as an organization that did not want to officially alignthemselves with either the Soviet Union or the United States, but itsought to stay neutral and independent. This paper aims to describethe positions and activities of NAM and to ascertain whether the NAMmembers were successful in avoiding being swept in the cold war.
Positionsand Activities of the Non-Aligned Movement
Someof the ideologies through which the organization was found include,territorial integrity, fight against imperialism and colonialism, andnationally independence. After the cold war, some of earlieractivities changed to embrace the present technicalities. Hereindiscussed, the position and operations that are executed by NAM.2NAM is publicly committed to comprehensive and sustainabledevelopment strategies and in achieving the millennium developmentgoals (MDGs). It is with the view of NAM managment that theinternational society has not created favorable growth conditions andhas, by extension, infringed the right to sovereign advancement byeach state member.3Themovement has out-rightly spoken against the reforms of the UnitedNations (UN). It criticizes the present UN structures and dynamics ofpower, clearly stating that organization is used by the superpowersin a manner to violate NAM principles.4
NAMworks on promoting human rights and cultural diversity and violentlyresists societal homogenization. It operates on the frameworks forthe preservation of cultural diversity, and tolerant to theactivities define human rights in a particular area.Self-determination of Western Sahara is yet another position held bythe movement. It is committed to the Sahrawi peopleself-determination by choosing an available valid, and consequently,embraced dialogue between the parties.5
Theorganization has since criticized particular aspects of the USforeign policy. Some of the US actions in the plan denounced by NAMencompasses “War on Terrorism,” the 2003 invasion of Iraq, andNorth Korea’s nuclear agenda. The US is working on frustrating thesovereignty of individual smaller states. Another critical positionand activity of NAM is the Puerto Rico self-determination. Themovement has supported the discussion before the UN since 1961.6
NAMCountries and Cold War Success Issue
Thecountries were not successful in avoiding being swept up the coldwar. Practically, the cold war ended up affecting each country in theworld in a particular manner. Some of the countries had war eruptingamongst them with the greatest examples most major being Vietnam,Afghanistan, and Korea. The cold war gave shape to economic andpolitical developments across several nations. The rest of the worldhad to define whether they were in communist or capitalist camps. Itwas a time of upheaval and socio-economic changes. Nations,especially the developing countries, depended on the superpowers forforeign aid and bonuses to support their development agendas7.
Itcan censoriously be summarized that cold war had significant effectsacross several nations in the world. NAM came in as a remedy tosecure the nations independence and other possible effects of coldwar. Nonetheless, the cold war had far-reaching effects across theworld.
Graham,John A. "The Non-Aligned Movement after the HavanaSummit." Journalof International Affairs (1980):153-160.
Hale,Matthew, Richard Hawkins, and Catherine Wright. "List ofpublications on the economic and social history of Great Britain andIreland published in 2006." TheEconomic History Review 60,no. 4 (2007): 773-826.
Hershberg,James G. "‘High-Spirited Confusion’: Brazil, the 1961Belgrade Non-Aligned Conference, and the Limits of an ‘Independent‘Foreign Policy during the High Cold War." ColdWar History 7,no. 3 (2007): 373-388.
McNamara,Robert S. "The Post—Cold War World: Implications for MilitaryExpenditure in the Developing Countries." TheWorld Bank Economic Review 5,no. suppl 1 (1991): 95-126.
Westad,Odd Arne. Theglobal Cold War: Third world interventions and the making of ourtimes. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
1 John Graham. "The Non-Aligned Movement after the Havana Summit." Journal of International Affairs (1980), 158
2 Matthew Hale, Hawkins Richard, and Catherine Wright. "List of publications on the economic and social history of Great Britain and Ireland published in 2006." The Economic History Review 60, no. 4 (2007), 180-802.
3 John Graham, 160.
4 Matthew Hale, Hawkins Richard, and Catherine Wright, 184
5, Robert S McNamara. "The Post—Cold War World: Implications for Military Expenditure in the Developing Countries." The World Bank Economic Review 5, no. suppl 1 (1991), 100.
6 Odd Arne Westad. The global Cold War: Third world interventions and the making of our times. (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 8.
7 James G Hershberg. "‘High-Spirited Confusion’: Brazil, the 1961 Belgrade Non-Aligned Conference, and the Limits of an ‘Independent’Foreign Policy during the High Cold War." Cold War History 7, no. 3 (2007), 377.
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