Teenagepregnancy is a great impediment to the success of young girls in theworld today. In such a manner, many scholars have conducted extensivestudies to determine the underlying cause of the problem as well asthe measures that should be taken to prevent and mitigate it.Tuvendale et al. (2017) propose encouraging positive relationshipsbetween adolescents and other members of society to preventincidences of teen pregnancy. Wanda (2015) suggests conductingfurther research in her opinion, evidence-based practice isnecessary to curb the problem. Tipparat et al. (2017) have alreadyresponded to this need and have provided statistics about theprevalence of the pregnancy among 13 to 19-year-olds. To demonstratethe urgency with which solutions should be implemented, Arceo-Gomezand Campos-Vazquez demonstrate the long and short-term effects ofsuch pregnancies to the economy. Diaz and Fiel (2016) also agree thatteenage pregnancies can have devastating effects in various spheresof society. Overall, the aforementioned authors provide importantinsight into the topic however, some of the articles need to beimproved in various areas.
TeenagePregnancyThearticle “Implementationof Community-Wide Prevention Initiatives: Focus onPartnerships” by Tevendale et al. (2017), whichwas published in TheJournal of Adolescent Health,fronts various arguments on how to tackle the issue of teenpregnancy. Particularly, the authors posit that teenage pregnanciescan be prevented by encouraging other members of society to fosterpositive relationships with adolescents. In my opinion, I think thatthe plans and actions described are quite effective, but there stillneed to be more that needs to be done to involve the teensthemselves. The Prevention Program (TPP) need toengage more with the teens and use peer counseling to achieve theirgoal. Formmy own experience, it is easier to listen to fellow teens, especiallythose who have gone through the challenge of early pregnancy, andknow that it was a mistake, than to adults who will lecture you onall the disadvantages yet they have never had personal experience onthe matter. It would be more helpful for the US Department of Healthand the Human Services Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) to have apool of teens or youth who are just post-teenage with personalexperiences in teenage pregnancy to be talking regularly to targetedteen audiences. This would yield more results than the currentstrategies.
Thesecond article, “Why We Need Evidence-Based, Community-WideApproaches for Prevention of ”, by Wanda(2017)talks a lot about gains made in the past two decades where it records57.4 pregnancies and 24.2 births per 1000 female teens aged between15 and 19 years. As much as this is a good trend, which ought to becelebrated, I find it slightly inaccurate. The data given in thisarticle leaves out 13 and 14 year olds who in my opinion, I feel thatthey are also at very high risk of pregnancy and ought to be coveredin any meaningful scientific data collection. There are many cases ofteenage pregnancies involving 13 and 14 year olds and any teenagepregnancy research that leaves them out may not claim to be accurateenough. This article does not talk about what happens to 33.2 ofthese pregnancies, which is the difference between the pregnanciesand the births in every 1000 female teens.
Thisbrings in the question of abortions and miscarriages. Howis abortion procured in all these cases and what are the risks? Arethere any deaths or long-term medical implications? What are thefigures in these cases? All these are questions that I feel needed tobe addressed by this article to bring deeper clarity to every keenreader. I think that it would be more prudent to for all governmentalagencies together with other non-governmental bodies to not onlyaddress the issue of teenage pregnancy selectively, but in itsentirety, focusing on all other problems that it occasions. Theother issue that is left out and which I feel is a direct result ofteen pregnancy is the loss of school time or even the completestoppage of schooling by the victim. This and other studies ofteenage pregnancy need to bring this to the fore and highlight thestrategies and steps taken to address this issue.Inherently,the third article “Perceptions Regarding Adolescent Pregnancy Amonga Group Thai Adolescents in Sweden” by Tipparat et al. (2017)addresses most of the issues that are important when dealing withteen pregnancy. This article gives proper details on 13 to 19 yearolds and it gives statistics on abortions and miscarriages. Thesefacts are generally missing in most of the other articles. Thecultural and religious aspect is also well explained, in particularexplaining the cultural shock that largely contributes to a high rateof teen pregnancy among immigrant Thai in Sweden. The issue ofcontraceptive use is also very well articulated. I noticed that thewriter is well knowledgeable of the challenges that the Thai teensface back in Thailand and hence is able to relate these challengeswith the new ones in the host country, in this case Sweden. Thewriter polled individuals and groups of teens, which is a good thing,with many explaining specific barriers for using contraceptives, withmany endorsing numerous myths and misconceptions regardingcontraception. For example, the reason given by participants for notusing a condom was the belief that pregnancy could not result fromonly one experience of unprotected sex or that withdrawing beforeejaculation was sufficient to prevent pregnancy. I feel that manyteens involved in this research are quite misinformed and thatresponsible agencies need to invest more in sex education.
Itis, however, the next article that brings out a few perspectives thatall the other ones that I have read have not covered. The article“TeenagePregnancy in Mexico: Evolution and Consequences” by Arceo-Gomez and Campos-Vazquez (2014) discusses the economic aspect, short and longterm effect on the social status of the teenage mother, and theintergenerational cycle of poverty likely occasioned by teenagepregnancy. I think that the PROMAJOVEN, a government program inMexico that targets teenage mothers whose education was interruptedby early pregnancy is a great idea that should be borrowed by othergovernments especially in developing countries. I, however, feel thatthis article does not show proof that there is enough being done ineducating teens and all stakeholders about the risks of teenagepregnancy. The high rate of 69 pregnancies per every 1000 femaleteens can only go up if sex education is not enhanced and properlyfunded.
Ialso agree with the writer that teenage pregnancies greatlycontribute to intergenerational poverty chains due to the high schooldropout rates, occasioned by these pregnancies, thereby denying theaffected teens education that would have possibly caused them to havea better future. This is a very well thought out article.Fundamentally,“Effect(s) of : Reconciling Theory, Methods, andFindings” by Diaz and Fiel (2016) explains that some teens arepredisposed to early pregnancies due to their parentage and locality.Teens born of women who were teenagers at conception are very likelyto be mothers at adolescence and this cycle may keep recurring forgenerations. The article explains that teen mothers have lowersocioeconomic attainment than their childless peers do. This iscaused by the young mothers’ commitment to caregiving and otherresponsibilities that come with motherhood. I feel that the agenciesthat seek to address teen pregnancy in this resource do not do enoughto change this problem after it has already occurred, but ratherconcentrate more on preventive ways, hence letting the alreadyaffected teens languish in substandard life styles characterized bypoverty and self-pity. I feel that such agencies should seek to helpaffected teens to kick-start their lives and invest in theireconomical attainment. This, I feel, will help break theintergenerational cycle of poverty that makes these problems recur.Deficits in skill and poor parenting are also featured here as amajor contributor to the problem and I agree, Because teenage birthsare concentrated among those who are most disadvantaged, thesedisadvantages rather than early childbearing may be the direct causeof young mothers’ lower socioeconomic attainment.
Diazand Fiel (2016) in their article “The effect(s) of :Reconciling Theory, Methods, and Findings” evaluate the effects ofteenage pregnancies and the corresponding measures that can be usedto prevent and control them. Inherently, their approach involvesreviewing existing studies that discuss the problem and theoreticallyapplying the solutions in the researches. They note that badrelationships between parents and their adolescent daughters play amajor role in the development of teenage pregnancies. In such amanner, they emphasize reconciliation as an important strategy in theprevention of adolescent conceptions.
Ifeel that Diaz and Fiel (2016), unlike the other articles reviewed,tackle the issue of teenage pregnancies extensively. They review theeffects of the phenomenon and correspondingly propose tested methodsfor dealing with the problem. Intrinsically, they demonstrate valueand proper use of evidence based practice in addressing the issue ofteenage pregnancy. In such a manner, I feel that their strategy fortackling the topic was very intelligible. Additionally, they seem toincorporate the ideas of all the authors of the other four articlesthat were previously analyzed. Particularly, Diaz and Fiel (2016)express conviction that interpersonal relationships are essential tosolving the problem. Additionally, they seem to be aware of thecritical role that research plays in uncovering solutions for theproblem this is emphasized by their use of evidence-based practicein their study.
Inconclusion, after comparing the aforementioned articles, I realizethat the causes of teen pregnancies are as diverse as the effects.One of the effects of teenage childbearing is a lower educationalattainment of the teenage mother, both in the short and long term. Asa result, in the long-term, the households of those females who hadtheir first child as teenagers tend to have a lower income percapita. Additionally, in the short term, teenage mothers reduce theircollege attendance and their labor supply. I also observed that whilemost teenage pregnancies are unplanned, not all are unwanted. Thisdifference is mainly brought about by the community rather than bythe affected teen mother. The response of the parents and thecommunity at large is mostly what determines whether pregnancies endin either abortion or birth. This begs for the question whether fundsneed to be set aside for community education in this matter or is itjust enough to only educate teenagers and leave out the community. Ifound all these articles very enlightening and helpful inunderstanding the problem and encouraging some critical thinking intowhat needs to be done in addressing this problem.
Arceo-Gomez,E., & Campos-Vazquez, R. (2014). Teenage Pregnancy in Mexico:Evolution and Consequences. LatinAmerican Journal of Economics, 51(1),109-146.
Diaz,C. J,& Fiel,J. E. (2016). Theeffect(s) of teen pregnancy: Reconciling theory, methods, andfindings.DemographySilver Spring53,85–116.
Tuvendale,D. H., Ph.DEt al. (2017). Implementationof Community-Wide Prevention Initiatives: Focus onPartnerships.Journalof Adolescent Health,60(3),S7–S8.
Tipparat,U. et al. (2017). “Perceptions regarding adolescent pregnancy amonga group of Thai adolescents in Sweden”, PacificRim International Journal of Nursing Research,21(1)75-87.
WandaD. B., M.D.,M.P.H. (2017). WhyWe Need Evidence-Based, Community-Wide Approaches for Prevention of.,Journalof Adolescent Health,60(3),S3–S6.
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