Tests and Measurement Abstract
Validatingdata lays foundations for better understanding of people and theirunique behavior. Conducting tests and measures provides a simplifiedproblem solving technique for researchers and its sole purpose is tovalidate psychological variables such as IQ and personality. Thispaper will focus on the Process Focused and Traditional Models ofvalidity and the significance of the process focused model. Finally,a focus will be made on how tests to ascertain Human achievement/IQis conducted and will also explore how IQ as a psychological variablecan be tested and measured.
Psychologyassessment involves testing the validity of different psychologicalvariables. The validation process involves gathering logical opinionsand empirical obtained information to establish the extent to whichthe level of appropriateness of inferences. Assessment is a test thatshows the different areas of psychology. A psychologist is interestedin the variety of issues that take diverse forms and structures.These different forms include the undetectable psychological shapesand discernible comportments. Since the validity assessment is animportant tool, psychologists are expending lots of time and financeto develop a reliable and efficient method of measurement(McReynolds, Rosen & Chelune, 2012). To characterize the mostreliable way of assessing the validity of the tests, it is importantto place side by side the traditional approach and process focusedapproach.
ProcessFocused versus Traditional Models
Thetwo models differ from the manner in which they conceptualizevalidity possibilities. In particular, testing validity using processfocused model involves the understanding that the levels of validitycan be used as a tool that can be used to interpret how respondentsget engaged in anticipated psychological process sets during tests,while the process itself is shaped by the type of instruments in useand the prevailing context of the tests. On the other hand, thetraditional approach uses correlational techniques for quantificationof relationships between criterion and test scores. The PF approachemploys experimental techniques influence variables that play acritical role in moderating test scores criteria which enablesresearchers to reach a definitive conclusion on the impact of thepsychological process. Completing outcome based validity teststhrough the use of process oriented approach, the researchers improveboth the psychology assessment measures and enhances understanding ofthe test score misuses and biases through their ability to identifyintra and inter personal elements that result to differentialperformances in various groups (Kline, 2013).
TraditionalModel of Validity
Traditionalapproaches to validity are majorly grouped into content, criterion,and construct related validity tests. The methods can be used toconveniently be used to conduct legitimacy of evidence. When testquestions are used as a basic representation of the level expertisein the given subject it is termed as content related traditionalapproach of validity. Another category is based on construct evidencethat relies on the kind of psychological constructs that the testsare based on. Finally, the criterion category indicates thesystematic relationship in the different test outcomes.
Processfocused Model of Validity
Rust,Golombok, Kosinski & Stillwell (2014) contends that old-styletesting and measuring is incomplete and divided particularly becauseit does not consider proof of significant ramifications of scoresignificance as a reason for activity and the social outcomes of ascore. This cutting edge method sees validity as an integrated ideathat relies heavily on how a tests are taken care of. A number ofdiscernable parts of validity can be depicted as techniques ofaddressing the main issues that justify the notion of validity as aunified idea. The perspectives conjointly work as general validitygauges for all instructive and psychological estimation. Theseviewpoints must be seen as interdependent and reciprocal types ofvalidity proof and not as isolated and substitutable validity forms.
TheProcess Focused Model assumes validity as being the place where therespondent can be uncovered to take part in an anticipatablearrangement of emotional and psychological procedures when tests aredone, and when the procedures included are dictated by the nature ofinstruments utilized and the setting of the testing. On the otherhand, traditional approaches are typically utilized as a part of anevaluation of the association between the test score and thebenchmark used. The process centered model applies experimentalstrategies to impact the factors that adjust the interplay ofcriterion test score.
Dependenceon correlational procedures in the measurement of validity inpsychology using the traditional approach is said to be a bigchallenge. Most psychologists have pointed out issues with thetraditional model of conceptualizing validity. This happens when thevalidity is compared with the greatness of indicator method explainedin the process-focused model, which by definition a test score islegitimate for all the things which correlate with it. In the trialof development objectives area, traditional validity approachregularly expands the test score outcomes.
Significanceof Process Focused Model
Bornsteinwas a strong proponent of the process focused approach of validity.Through this preferred method, it is anything but difficult tocharacterize validity as how much the respondent is seen toparticipate in anticipatable arrangements of mental procedures in atest. Concurring Bornstein, recognizable proof of these mentalprocesses permits test controls to be introduced all together withthe methods, and in addition to deciding if the alterations willimpact the test scores. Process-centered model guarantees that theconventional methodology of managing unnecessary factors thatinterfere with the psychosomatic test scores is turned around.
Processfocus model is typically valuable in edifying the practices thatmotivate stimulus- attribution reliance score and self-attributionand also help with clarifying the loose interrelationship betweenbroadly connected measures of a similar psychological variable.Moreover, the process-focused model has been found to give particulardata on the validity that traditional approach can`t provide. In anycase, it is critical to note that none of the two models holds thepossibility of providing a comprehensive validity test all alone.
Theprocess-focused model ordinarily interfaces psychological measurementand testing with the other areas of psychology. The greater part ofthe control used as a part of process-centered approach hasintegrated ideas from the other sub-fields of psychology. Processfocused approach improves the comprehension of psychologists in scorevalidity, as well as assisting in to relate the different fields ofpsychology. This interlinks psychology study.
Assessmentof the Validity of IQ/ achievement tests Using Bornstein’s FourSteps assessment
Bornsteinhas delineated a methodology that can be utilized to survey thevalidity of any psychological state. The evaluation places muchweight on the use of appraisal techniques by utilization of aprocess-centered approach. A psychological variable such as IQ/achievement test can be evaluated by this procedural layouts. Theinitial step is known as the deconstruct evaluation instrument. Thisstep consists of two distinct components. The first one includesindicating the fundamental psychological process in IQ testing. Inthis progression of process centered test score, approval of IQ testis done by determining the basic procedure required in the tests. Thebasic procedure that can modify achievement test is then recognizedto have a substantial evaluation of IQ test. In this progression,recognizable proof of setting variables will likewise be important inthe evaluation of the test (Bornstein, 2011).
Thesecond step that Bornstein recognized as way that can be utilized asa part of the appraisal of a psychological construct, for example,human IQ/ achievement test involves an assessment process. To decidethe validity of the evaluation of IQ test, the first thing that isconsidered involves modification of factors distinguished in thefirst step. Depiction of hypothesized outcomes is very critical inthis stage and evaluating ID achievement test must consist ofcomprehensive trial plan.
Thethird assessment step can be utilized as part of the validation of IQtests appraisal includes interpreting the result of the evaluation.Information gathered on human IQ-achievement is interpreted but a lotof care is given to controlling conditions in evaluation procedures.The exercise gets completed by establishing unreasonable experiencesseen in evaluation work (Bornstein, 2011).
Thefourth step distinguished by Bornstein as a strategy for evaluatingthe validity of tests in a process focused approach includescontextualizing. Information gathered about IQ test is put into aspecific setting. Constraining conditions may involve insufficientresearch outline during the prior stages. A flawed onset procedurethat makes it challenging to extent to which IQ test is valid canhave huge effect on the appraisal outcome. Appraisal configurationflaws is calculated and it is approved through carrying out a surveyon IQ test data obtained from varied samples. As postulated byBornstein (2011), following the aforementioned procedures guaranteesthat the IQ validation is complete when all the aspects arelegitimately surveyed.
HowTests to Test Human achievement/IQ are conducted
Bornsteinproposes that all things considered, the psychological endeavors inwhich individuals take an interest when responding to psychologicalconstructs, for example, IQ test are impacted by way of the testingdevices or instruments. Testing will subsequently involve askingindividuals questions concerning human achievement. Questionnairesare issued to get a response on the subject. Individuals react bysaying if they think the results of the questionnaire are valid or towhat degree they believe they are valid.
Thesecond test that can be utilized to evaluate human achievement as apsychological construct is called stimulus- attribution test. Inthis, respondents are required to conclude ambiguous stimuli. Peopleare asked for to relate stimuli for human achievement which hasdifferent importance. The third test that can survey this constructis the performance based test. The fourth test is the productive testthat obliges individuals to give a distinctive depiction of humanachievement/IQ without the assistance of the psychologist. Thisapproves human appraisal by surveying what people think about thisconstruct.
Anunderstanding of assessment techniques is an imperative way oftesting psychological variables and the methods should categoricallyfocus on content creation processes. The process focus approachencourages the ability to create valid outcomes from research. Sincethere is a relative reliance of outcomes of the models on methods andstrategies that are interlinked in task execution, they should beable to navigate through cognitive-process so as to analyze thetheoretical mechanisms that results in the responses. From theanalysis of the two methods of assessing validity, it is clear thatno single method can be relied on. An integrated approach where thestrength of both models is utilized is a better way forward.
Bornstein,R. F. (2011). Toward a process focused model of test score validity:Improving
psychologicalassessment in science and practice. Psychological Assessment, 23 (2),532-544.
Kline,P. (2013). Handbookof psychological testing.Routledge.
McReynolds,P., Rosen, J. C., & Chelune, G. J. (Eds.). (2012). Advancesin psychological
assessment (Vol.7). Springer Science & Business Media.
Rust,J., Golombok, S., Kosinski, M., & Stillwell, D. (2014). Modernpsychometrics: The science
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