The Rendering of Services to People with Developmental Disabilities
TheRendering of Services to People with Developmental Disabilities
TheRendering of Services to People with Developmental Disabilities
Disabilitycontent remains a critical component of social work education sincesocial workers are obligated to offer qualified services to personswith disabilities as well as serve as advocates for susceptiblepopulations. In society, families of persons with disabilitiesnormally bear associated stresses as poverty statistics indicate(Taggart & Cousins, 2014). The oppression of such populations andthe linkage between personal capacities and constraints related tothe disability subject justifies the role of social work indisability aspects and social provision. It is therefore imperativethat social work initiatives incorporate the teaching of disabilityissues, which places great significant to education on diversity.Researchers in the social work field continuously assess educationalcontent concerning the subject by undertaking content analysis ofsyllabi and course description (Amado, Stancliffe, McCarron, &McCallion, 2013). Unfortunately, few social work educationalinstitutions fully address the issue of disability content inprescribed curriculum. This implies greater needs to not only analyzedisability content but also how such is included within social workeducation curricula. This paper presents a literature review, briefhistory on developmental disabilities social work, analysis ofemerging issues, human diversity, and credentials requirements forteachers in the field.
Withinthe context of US society, disability is commonly appearing socialproblem. Statistics from the Census Bureau indicate that nearly 30%of families in the country have more than one members living with adebility (Bean & Krcek, 2012). Social workers indeed availnumerous amenities to persons living with incapacities as well astheir immediate families. On the global scene, social workers areengaged fully not only in service delivery but also in policyformulation and research activities spearheading at appraising rightsfor persons with disabilities. Amado et al. (2013) contend thatsocial inclusion is a fundamental aspect for people with theseincapacities. However, the notion of attachment remains indistinct tomost people because of multifaceted meanings in study and policy(Peer & Hillman, 2014). This means that people should be informedon the need to recognize the challenges that developmental disabledindividuals encounter as well as support them socially,psychologically, and economically. Furthermore, Amado et al. (2013)assert that the society has made great strides in offering structuresthat help identify the risks that these people face.
Accordingto the National Association of Social Workers (2016a), social workersoffer employment and training, community-based housing, medicalservices, education, and psychological services for persons withdiverse form of disabilities. A notable percentage of social workersprofessionally engage with persons with neurological, chronicmedical, developmental, and physical disabilities. This implies thatdisability content is of critical significance regarding social workeducation. Williamson and Perkins (2014) assert that most people withdevelopmental incapacities live with their domestic nurses hence,the need to measure the deliberations of these caregivers.Furthermore, Williamson and Perkins (2014) posit that healthcarefacilities need to cultivate policies that will help these nursesrealize the best processes or structures to develop during care. Thisis because giving care to individuals with developmental incapacitiesis usually a complex task. According to Amado et al. (2013), mostresearch on the strides made in this field focus on formal servicesthus, does not include people who receive care from familycaregivers. In this regard, the government should develop structuresthat will allow the provision of care to all individuals sufferingfrom developmental disabilities.
BriefHistory of Developmental Disabilities Social Work
TheColumbia University offered the pioneering social work class in 1898with the vision to bringing to the fore the country’s socialchallenges to the general public’s attention as well as meetingsocietal needs. The numerous privileges witnessed at present are thefruitful outcomes of early social workers who after perceiving theinjustices and miseries prevailing in earlier American societyendeared to act (Boursiquot & Brault, 2013). These actions havecontinued to inspire new generations of social workers furtherappraising efforts working with institutions and more so, affectedfamilies. In 1998, the profession commemorated its centennial withpioneer Jane Adams celebrated for receiving the 1931 Nobel PeacePrize (National Association of Social Workers, 2016a). She was adedicated peace activist and dedicated community organizer whoestablished Chicago’s settlement houses for immigrants. Anothernotable social worker in American society was Frances Perkins whoalso served in President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s cabinet. Hersignificant efforts concerning the New Deal Legislation remain highlyappreciated today. Whitney M. Young, Jr., a trailblazer in America’sCivil Rights agenda and social worker rose to become the “NationalUrban League” director while still assisting as the dean for theaccredited “Atlanta School of Social Work” (National Associationof Social Workers, 2016a). He is regarded as a major inspiration forthe War on Poverty under President Johnson. Others include JeanetteRankin, Dorothy Height, and Harry Hopkins.
IssuesExperienced in the Field
In1990, the “Americans with Disabilities Act ADA” brought to lightthe disability agenda in social work. The legislation served toexpand protection for persons with disabilities regarding employmentas well as access to public areas. In a study conducted in 1995,Quinn identified the significance of social workers in availingneeded services and championing for persons under the demographicgroup especially after the law was enacted. The researcher found outthat most of the incapacity substance was incorporated in 29% oftraining courses, 18% of policy programs and 11 % of human conduct asstudied in social setting courses (Bean & Krcek, 2012). The studyrecognized that only policy courses were purely dedicated todisability content.
Issuesof Human Diversity
Culturalcompetence and diversity in developmental studies social work emergedbecause of two recent events. These events brought about the need fora comprehensive understanding with regard to specificity of culture,language, economic and social distinctions concerning specificfamilies and people (National Association of Social Workers, 2016b).One of these events is the American Civil Rights awakening of women,African Americans, persons with disabilities, lesbians, and gaypopulations as well as diverse minority groupings. This particularmovement worked to alert the general US society to the uniqueidentities of these groups as well as recognizing the age longoppressions (Boursiquot & Brault, 2013). The second eventappertains to the ever-rising number of fresh immigrants into the USwho introduce new languages, cultures, political affiliations, andreligions. These novel immigrant communities not only experiencehistories relating to internal displacements in home countries butalso political oppression, extreme poverty, and torture (Peer &Hillman, 2014). This has compounded the challenges as well asopportunities faced by social workers in melding the differentbackgrounds relative to expectation of ethnic American citizens aswell as the overall diversity in the country’s populace.
Socialworkers represent the best posited set up of service providers withan elaborate history of comprehending the impact of social injusticesand people’s diversity on well-being. At present, social workersare compelled to add consistently upon cultural competencies to thealready acquired values and strengths (Taggart & Cousins, 2014).This makes them perfectly suited towards the delivery on culturallyproficient care. Towards furthering this end, the NationalAssociation of Social Workers has established in recent timesstandards obliging social workers to rise above towards the deliveryof diverse services to an increasingly diversified clientele.
CredentialsRequired in Developmental Disabilities Social Work
Aqualified Developmental Disability Professional (DPP) under contractor engaged by a certified agency is the only person required torender services in this field. The agency or the DPP should have theobligation for supervising the distribution of waiver services topartakers (Department of Behavioral Health and DevelopmentalDisabilities, 2016). All DPPS should have training in advancedpractice nursing, behavior specialization, board certified behavior,education, or human service. This means that they must be registeredprofessional caregivers as specified by state boards of nursing withat least one year practice in managing people with disabilities.Behavior specialists also qualify to become DPPS, but they must havecompleted a Master’s degree in counseling, rehabilitation,psychology, or related fields. BCBAs (Board Certified BehaviorAnalysts) wishing to join the field must have a Master’s degree andattained a passing score in their respective exam (Department ofBehavioral Health and Developmental Disabilities, 2016). Occupationaltherapists, human service experts with a degree, Master’s degreeholders in social or behavioral sciences, physicians, psychologists,registered nurses, audiologists, and recreational therapists are alsoqualified to become DPPs. Moreover, all potential DPPs must undertaketraining in health screening techniques, support intensity scales,and personal service development.
Thefield deals with the role, contribution, and scope of social workersin providing effective care or services to people with developmentaldisabilities. The paper has highlighted the crucial function andamenities that caregivers render to clients as well as some of thechallenges that the patients encounter. It is imperative thatfacilities and governments develop structures that allow theinclusion of these people in various areas. Moreover, policymakersshould identify ways through which firms can create facilities thatwill cater for all the needs of the victims without bias orineffective care. Social workers commit to maximize the safety,health, and wellbeing of people, communities, families, and societyhence, they should be supported in their endeavors to manage rendertheir services successfully.
Amado,A. N., Stancliffe, R. J., McCarron, M., & McCallion, P. (2013).Social inclusion and community participation of individuals withintellectual/developmental disabilities. Intellectualand developmental disabilities, 51(5),360-375.
Bean,K. F., & Krcek, T. E. (2012). Theintegration of disability content into social work education: Anexamination of infused and dedicated models. Advancesin Social Work, 13(3),633-647.
Boursiquot,B. L., & Brault, M. W. (2013). Disabilitycharacteristics of income-based government assistance recipients inthe United States: 2011. AmericanCommunity Survey Briefs,11(12).
Departmentof Behavioral Health and Developmental Disabilities. (2016).Developmentaldisability professional (DPP) requirements.DBHDD Georgia. Retrieved 8 April 2017 fromhttp://dbhdd.georgia.gov/sites/dbhdd.georgia.gov/files/related_files/site_page/Developmental%20Disability%20Professional%20Requirements%20FY%202013.pdf
NationalAssociation of Social Workers. (2016a). Socialwork history.Retrieved 8 April 2017 fromhttps://www.socialworkers.org/pressroom/features/general/history.asp
NationalAssociation of Social Workers. (2016b). Socialwork profession: Overview.Retrieved 8 April 2017 fromhttp://www.socialworkers.org/profession/factsheet.htm.
Peer,J. W., & Hillman, S. B. (2014). Stress and resilience for parentsof children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: Areview of key factors and recommendations for practitioners. Journalof Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 11(2),92-98.
Taggart,L., & Cousins, W. (2014). Healthpromotion for people with intellectual and developmentaldisabilities.McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
Williamson,H. J., & Perkins, E. A. (2014). Family caregivers of adults withintellectual and developmental disabilities: Outcomes associated withUS services and supports. MentalRetardation, 52(2),147-159.
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