The Role of Liberal Government under Canada`s Syrian Refugee Program on
GOVERNMENT’S ROLE IN CANADA`S SYRIAN REFUGEE PROGRAM 25
TheRole of Liberal Government under Canada`s Syrian Refugee Program onResettlement
TheLiberalgovernment of Canada hasdeveloped and implemented a program targetingrefugeesfrom Syrian whose society have been torn apart by the ongoing war. In2016, this program helped more than 25, 000 refugeesthrough theprovisionof transport from Syria, food, shelter and other essentials. TheCanadian citizenshavedemonstrateda mixedreaction to this effort bythe government to help the refugees. Those with negative opinionclaim that they worry the security of Canada. However, impactevaluation reveals a broadrange of benefits. Positive effectsinclude increased economic growth due to increased tax generation andentrepreneurship. Also,the adverse effectsassociatedwith the program includeinsecurityand negative cultural influences among others. At the end of thestudy, the best actions for future improvement arediscussed.These include public involvement and upgrade of security scanning. With such measure, the liberal government will induce a secure andproductive environment for both the refugees and Canadians.
Keywords:Refugee program, Syrian Refugees in Canada, Liberal Government,GovernmentSponsoredRefugee(GAR) Program,Resettlement,integration, Impacts, Costs,Economic, Policy implication
Formany years, Canada has taken uniquely generousactions toward the integration and resettlement of people regardlessof their races, economic, social and political differences.Specifically, people from warring countries such as Syria have beenwelcomedin Canada as a way of supporting them and restoring their hope. Thegovernmenthas actively facilitated these humanitarian actions through severalways including modification of the laws and policies. For example,the Citizenship Act. Bill C-6 has beenmodifiedin ways that immigrants can easilyacquire citizenship (Legislative Background on Refugee Resettlement,2016). Such modifications include the reduction of the time a personshould have stayed in Canada to become citizens. Also,the Canadian government established the Immigration and NationalityAct (INA), and the Refugee Act of 1980 both seeking to provideguidelines on refugee admissions (Bruno,2015).Moreover, thesetwo actsand others mentioned atthis momentfocused on facilitating the process of resettling refugees. Thismodification,however, was just a decision from a far bigger commitment by thegovernment. It was one of the decisions to facilitate thegovernment-assisted refugee (GAR) program.
Introductiontothe Key Concepts
Unlikesuch programs in Jordan and Lebanon steered towards helping Syrianrefugees, “Welcome Refugees” program wasdedicatedto achievingthe identification, selection, transportation of refugees from Syria,and their resettlement in Canada (Garcea, 2016). The government hadthe program divided into five phases to facilitate the achievementthese objectives. The activities conducted in each phase aredescribedin the next section under the events leading to initiation andadoption of the program. Objectively, this program has positivelytransformed refugees in different ways (Legislative Background onRefugee Resettlement, 2016 McMurdo, 2016). However, severalorganizations and influential individuals have criticized it on thevariousbases. Nonetheless, criticalanalysis of the objectives, principles, structure and documentedoutcomes of Canada’s government-assisted refugee (GAR) program forSyrian refugees is important (Sarin Jain, 2011). As covered in class,it involves looking at the working policies, people’s consultationand participation, and its effectiveness in addressing the identifiedissues. More importantly, it should beimprovedthrough continuous evaluation and monitoring.
TheImportance and Purpose of the Research
Thepaper’s objective is to identify theroles the Canadian Liberalgovernments play in the Government-Assisted Program for SyrianRefugees. Inthis case, thisstudy intends to analyze the design of the program, key stakeholdersand roles they play, and implementationpractices.
Clearly,the implementation and maintenance of this program have involvedsignificant policy issues, need for public participation,and efforts from other organizations such a United Nations (UN)(Michael, 2012). Consequently, there are important concepts worthidentifying and understanding regarding public administration. Thisstudy will consult the literatureavailable onthe topic, come up with a comprehensible report that fulfillsthe above objective.
Consequently,the knowledge achieved and documented will – beaddedto the existing body of knowledge foracademicand research purposes. Moreover, this study will help identifyvarious issues such as practice and limitation of democracy in thedevelopmentof public policies and programs. These aspects ofdemocracy were discussed earlierin class,andthis studywill help clarify them from a case study perspective. Finally, thestudy will investigate the impacts, the shortcomings,and future of Canadian refugee program. It is the hope that all theprinciples, methods, arguments and other important information willbe available and open fornot only for academicand research purposes butin policy development as well.
TheActors Involved in the Program
Thedevelopment and implementation of the Canadian refugees involveddifferent key players including the governments from bothsides,the United Nation High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), privatesponsors, Citizen and Immigration Canada (CIC), the refugees andcitizens of Canada (Hyndman, Payne, & Jimenez, 2017). Each ofthese stakeholders influenced the program in some ways worthunderstanding as discussed in this study. Proper understanding ofeach stakeholder’s role in the program can beachievedby description and critical analysis of events in every phase of the“Welcome Refugee” program
TheEvents That Led to Initiation and Adoption of the Refugee’s Program
Beforethe onset of the 20thcentury, Canada government did not have resettlement programs forrefugees(Raska,2016). During then, however, the government had campaigns that wereattractive toimmigrants.New arrivals from different regions relied on relatives, friends, andthose of similar ethnic groups or religion for assistance becausethere were no organizations offering refugee services. According toBeaudoin(2014), these ethnicgroups helped the refugees and immigrantsachieve positive feelings despite the lifestyle experience. Evidently, the first feworganizations with interestsinhelping immigrant that emergedatthe beginning of the World War I exhibited ethnocentriccharacteristics.
Theperiod after 20thcentury saw many organizations came up to assist both immigrants andrefugees, particularly near the ports (Davies & Batchelor, 2017),whererepresentatives of ethnic and religion received newcomers(Douglas,Levitan, & Kiama, 2017).Consequently, temporary shelters wereestablishedas they searched for settlement grounds and employment. By the timeSecond World War was ending, there was a highpopulation of displaced persons. It is during this time whensocieties offering social services to refugees of war emerged (Raska,2016). Unfortunately, the efforts by these societies were not enoughto prevent the growing unemployment, poverty, informal settlementsand sometimes crimes emerging from immigrants and refugees (McMurdo,2016). For this reason, government steered its focus on the matterand established refugee category under the provision of CanadianImmigration Act of 1976 (Weaver, 2014). Also,a Citizenship Branch was created in 1950 to grant citizenship torefugees as a way of initiating integration and resettlement (Raska,2016). Other legal processes and programs also followed includingSettlement Language Training(1990), previously renamed Language Instruction for Newcomers toCanada (LINC) in 1992, and the HOSTprogram (1991) which is the first version of government-assistedrefugee program (GAR). Later, the GAR program was modified toaccommodate other parts of the currentrefugee program.
Canada’srefugee program comprises of two parts. The first is Refugee andHumanitarian Resettlementfor people who need help and protection from outside, while thesecond is In-Canada Asylum Program for those needing protection fromwithin Canada (Garcea, 2016). According to Garcea (2016), mostSyrian refugees seek help in the former that contains the GAR,private sponsorship, and Blended Visa Office-Referred (BVOR). Sincethe main objective is to investigate the role of government in theresettlementof Syrian refugees, this study will briefly discuss activities inpreparation of Syrian immigrants and their resettlement beforefocusing on the government-assistedrefugee program (GAR).
Thewar in Syria triggered the government’s attention and neededfor helpingabout 13.5 million people it threatens including 6.5 million who werealreadyinternallydisplaced (“Canada`sresponse to the conflict in Syria,”2017).Also,“Canada`sresponse to the conflict in Syria”(2017) reports that morethan 250,000 people have died in the war while close to 5 millionhave escaped to the neighboring nations.
AnalyzesHow the Government Presents the Problem and the Role Played by OtherActors
Canada’sgovernment has recognized the urgent need for helping the troubledcitizens in Syria through their immigration and resettlement inCanada. In a general case, the government has a role to welcome andhelp refugees settle while at the same time containing the threatthey maycontain. For this reason, the government is active inevery phase of the GAR program.
Inphase one, the Governmentof Canada partners with the UNHCR to successfully initiate andcomplete the identification and integration of refugees in Syria.During these processes, the government prioritizesthe most vulnerable groups particularly women and children(Friscolanti, 2016). Also, it determines any negative impacts orrisks refugees may have to the Canadian communities by collectinginformation on the capacity of local resources such as health care,housing, and security (“Canada`sresponse to the conflict in Syria,”2017).As earlier covered in class, the government also initiates democraticcommunication processes with the local people who arelikelyto be impacted by resettlement activities.
Inphase two of the program, UNHCR contacts and request the identifiedvulnerable people to apply for resettlement in Canada (Friscolanti,2016). Once they have agreed and applied, this organization confirmstheir identity and forwards it to the Citizen and Immigration Canadafor the processing of the visas. Those who have applied aretakenthrough several examinations such as disease screening and profiledevelopment.According to Hyndman, Payne, and Jimenez (2017), medical resultscannot deny onechancefor resettlement but induce a follow-upprocessonce he or she arrives in Canada. The reason for this, and asmentioned in class sometimes back, is that the program should befocusedon helping the people as they are. Also,other processes steered towards security such as collection ofbiographical data, or checking for warrants and criminality is donein this phase.
Thethird phase is travel to Canada when all the health andsecurityscreening, applications, and preparations in Canada have beencompleted (Friscolanti,2016). The Citizen Immigration Canada (CIC) liaises withInternational Organization for Migration (IOM) to ensure planetickets escort and luggage packing arearranged.Also,for privately sponsored refugees, the sponsoring organizations arenotified beforethetravel (Hyndman, Payne, and Jimenez, 2017). Also in this phase, thegovernment of Canada takes care of medical and travel costs by theprovisionof payable loans.
Phase4 involves the second screening for identity verification anddiseases upon arrival in Canada.The private sponsoring organizations taketheir refugees while governments sponsored areprovidedwith the temporarysettlement.
Phase5 involve the settlement and integration of the refugees in Canadiancommunities. The government provides healthcare, housing, counselingand English language training (Wattie,2016). The government also facilitates employment of the able populationwhile the youngpopulation isprovidedwith schooling services.
Inaddition to the above-discussedroles discussed in each phase, the government overseesthe compliance to the supporting legal structures such as Refugee Actof 1980, Immigration National Act, and Canadian Immigration Act(Weaver,2014). Accordingto RefugeeSecurityScreening Process (2017), theCanadiangovernment togetherwithotheragencies such as International Organizationfor Immigrationcan revoke immigration in case there isabreakdownof order (Hyndman, Payne, and Jimenez, 2017). Such cases followincidences where an individual isidentifiedtothreatennational security during screening processes. Also,in case the sponsoring agencies fail to honor mandated guidelines,the government takesover control over the resettlement of refugees.
Impactsof the Refugees inCanadaTheKey Impacts of Canadian Program for Syrian Refugees
TheCanada’s Refugee Program for Syrian people have both costs andconsequences aligned withthe need to help people escape war and recover. The impacts can beanalyzedfrom four dimensions that are social, political, economic andenvironmental. The reasons these impacts occur is that from the timerefugees enter Canada, their culture and religion isintroducedin places they settle. Also,they use resources such as water and housing, adjust surroundings totheir preferences, and interact with the native population(Vanderfluit,Gray-Grant, Woolley, Rodrigues, Levy & Graveney, 2016). In this section, the study will look at the impacts the refusessubject to the areas the settle. These impacts can be either positiveor negative. However, the dynamics between the two is complex becauseit is dependent ona wide range of factors including an economicsystem of Hosting country, urban- rural interactions,and political atmosphere (Vanderfluitt al. 2016).Consequently, both the hosts and refugees experience positive andnegative impacts.
Large-scaleestablishment of refugee settlements and high influx ofthe country results in disruption of the native social structures inthe regions they arehosted. In most cases, the population increases while the ethnic balancethat existed before changes(Douglas,Levitan, & Kiama, 2017). In most cases as observed in Pakistan,Uganda and Macedonia where refugees of war havebeenhostedis that tension occursbetween the hosting communities and the refugees, resulting intension based on suspicion and enmity. Such case wasobservedamong the Congo refugees hosted in Uganda in 1990s tribal wars((Douglas,Levitan, & Kiama, 2017). Thetensionbetween refugees and hosts emerged when Congolese rooted propertyfrom hosting communities. However, Canada no significant tension hasbeenreported underthe GAR program (Cowan,2015).In fact, a study by Molloy, and Simeon, (2016) establish that ifrefugees unite with people of their culture and religion, theyinteract and co-exist. Evidently, there are few cases where the hostshave helped the refugees get employment and other survival needs.
Anotherimpact can beobservedin the way refugees use and share resources(McMurdo,2016). The refugee programs are meant to provide Syrians servicessuch as education, health, water, and basic livelihood whose war inthe home country has disrupted. However, these systems becomeare strainedthrough overexploitation, unsustainable use, and sometimes conflictsof interests (Kushner, 2017 “Refugee Admission and AssimilationProcess,” 2016). It is important to note that the cost of theseservices to the government increases with increase in refugee’spopulation. The problem with this is that when the government may nothave enough resources to improve these services, the existing systemswill deteriorate resulting in poor housing, sanitation, nutrition,and healthcare provision (“Refugee Admission and AssimilationProcess,” 2016). On another note, refugees can help in optimizationof resources that are underusedin the hosting communities. For example, social services providedthrough international funding agencies such as UNHCR or the privatesponsors can have positive changes that introduce benefits even tothe local communities (McMurdo, 2016). Such benefits may includeexpansion of sanitation services, the establishmentof new education and health centers and energy systems. Such case wasobserved in Tanzania between 1997 and 2003 through Special Programfor Affected Areas (SPRRA)(Fisk, 2014 Garnier, 2014). In this program, several activitiesincluding expansion of infrastructure, farming activities andemployments were conducted to facilitate delivery of core services tothe refugees. Consequently, the hosting communities enjoyed expandedand increased sources of livelihood.
Similarto the social delivery systems, the environment and natural resourcessuch as water, land,and air areimpactedin several ways (Tatah, Delbiso, Rodriguez-Llanes, Gil Cuesta, &Guha-Sapir, 2016). First, the establishment of refugee camps causesestablishment of the slums. Although the settlement is usuallyreported to involve the housing services, it has beenobservedin other countries that low-qualityhouses emerge in areas of resettlement and integration. The reasonfor this is that only about 10 percent of refugees manage to getemployment that can provide better lifestyle, while a significantpopulation remained unemployed for a long time (Tatahet al., 2016). In these shabby settlements, poor conditions such assanitation are obvious leading to a diseaseoutbreak. Other environmental issues associated with refugees includedeforestation due to the useof space for living, firewood collection, and land degradation. Theseconditions areconfirmedby a study by Fisk (2014)thatinvestigated the impacts of refugees in African nations such asMalawi.
Withresettlement of refugee in Canada comes pressure on the economicsystems. Since the beginning of refugee programs in Canada, severaleconomic conditionshasemerged including an increasein the costof goods, lack of employment, and decline in wage and salaries(Cowan,2015 Vanderfluit et al., 2016). Such impacts have beenobservedwith analysis of impacts immigrants have on the Canadian economicsystem, whereby the foreigner,especially from developing countries,areready to take jobs with low pays. In consequence, this only makes ithard for the local communities thatthe reduced salary and wages cannot enable themtokeep up with lifestyle needs. Also,the refugee programs come with increased yet uncompensatedexpenditures from services offered to the refugees (Vanderfluitet al., 2016).Evidently, Canada’s program used nearly $460 million as per August22, 2016,from both the government and taxpayers’ pockets (Wattie,2016).Another impact evaluation study reported that the Daadab refugee campin Kenya placed direct and indirect to the local hosting communitiesthat amounted to $82 million in the year 2009 alone (Douglas,Levitan, & Kiama, 2017). Such amount is a huge cost to adeveloping nation like Kenya. Finally, the resettlement of refugeesin Canada has been projected to increase economic impacts thatimmigrants from other countries particularly those of similar cultureand religion with Syrians.
EconomicBenefits of the Refugees in Canada
Asthe refugees arewelcomedin Canada,and their basic needs meet, there are benefits that will accrue tothe economy. First, the refugee population will help createpopulation balance from the decline observed in the past years. Thepopulation of Canada has remained stagnant for many years,and this means a threat to the future Canadian economy (Pottie,Greenaway, Hassan, Hui, & Kirmayer, 2016). Reason being the agingpopulation is shrinking,and the country needsyoungminds to stimulate the economy through employment, entrepreneurialand business development. In this case, the refugee influx means toensure the sustainability of Canadian future is guaranteed.
Fromthe histories, the immigrants and refugees from civil wars of “60s”and “70s” have demonstrated great willingnessto work and create jobs once they are back on their feet (Vanderfluitet al., 2016).Beaudoin(2014)study confirms this by revealing that refugees in Canada seekopportunities for work and growth but not to be marginalized based onethnicity. Molloy and Simeon (2016) in their studyrevealedthat refugees come to Canada with an entrepreneurialspirit that seesthem open new opportunities for social, business, and educationgrowth. More importantly, the diversity and ethics Syrians havedemonstrated in the past arebeneficial to the Canadian economy in that they promote peacefulcoexistence and interactions in the business world (Byman &Speakman, 2016). While most of the refugees seek employment indifferent industries in Canada, a significant proportion pursueseducation and achieves high career profiles. Thisin turns supplies the country’s economy with the required skills incorporate levels.
Thereis evidence that refugees in Canada from Europe and Asian countriespays more tax than others through the program Investor Cass Programare. Normally, refugees applying for this program are required to pay4800,000 or $1,200,000 to the governmentthat they can get officers and other guardians who can help themsettle in Canada (Vanderfluitet al., 2016).When comparing the amounts they give in this program to the $18,000to $25,000 they earn annually, it is clear that they benefit theeconomy more than it benefits them (Vanderfluit et al., 2016). Also,studies have suggested that the greatest proportion of the refugeeswho come to Canada usually find employment. In one study, more than66 percent of refugees can declare significant earned income in thefirst ten years with an averageof $30,000 (Vanderfluitet al., 2016). Thisconfirms that the refugees from Syrian are generators of tax revenuemore than they use in their first years.
Lastlybut not the least, refugee influx increases the demand for consumergoods and services which in turn. Thishelps boost the economy since companies are required to increasetheir volume output to meet the demand (Cowan,2015). Simultaneously, more employment opportunities arise thereby enablingnot only industrial growth but also profitability. One contributionthey make to the industry is the provisionof cheap labors (Vanderfluitet al., 2016).Consequently, companies canincrease profits as they save wages and salary they provide torefugee workers.
AdverseEffects the Refugees May Have on the Canadians
Evidently,Syrian refugees can have negative impacts onthe country’s population, industries, environment,and politics. As aforementioned, refugee’s integration andresettlement in the Canadian communities can leadto pressure on the existing resources and systems for delivery ofsocial services. Issues such as poor sanitation and energyconsumptions are common in the areas where refugee resides, assupported by impact evaluation studies in Lebanon and Tanzania (Fisk,2014). In particular, refugees in Tanzania caused massivedeterioration of sanitation systems, while health care facilities inLebanon were congested.
Alongthe overuse social resources comes environmental degradation. Thiscan refer to contamination of Canada’s water bodies, improper wastedisposal,and deforestation. For example, a camp in Kenya hosting Sudaneserefugees was found to have a highrate of deforestation as due to settlement and firewood collection(Douglas, Levitan, & Kiama, 2017). Other deterioration can beobservedin fisheries, forests and wildlife systems. In some regions, diseaseoutbreaks occur in concentrated camps thereby endangering even thehosting communities. Consequently, the government expenditures onhealth and medical costs increase.
Anotherproblem with refugee resettlements is that inequalities betweenrefugees and non-refugees occur. While most such inequalities resultin social tension, they degrade the welfare of the minoritiesespecially women and children. For example, Gender-baseddominion usually emerges in refugee camps subjecting women and girlsto sexual abuse, violence,and trafficking (Douglas, Levitan, & Kiama, 2017). These can beimpacts of the introductionof new cultures and religions such as tradition Africanism, Islam,and Christianity.
Althoughmost studies conducted to evaluate refugee impacts has not recognizedthe political negativities associated with the resettlementof refugees, few including Fisk (2014) have established the rolerefugee programs can have in the expansionof rebels social structures. Such probability has beenstudiedin case studies on Pakistan and Afghanistan resistance in 1980whereby the established refugee camps were used to recruit Talibanfollowers (Hyndman, Payne, & Jimenez, 2017). As discussedearlier in class, such movements undermine democratic development andputcitizens in insecurities. That is to say, terrorist networks can beestablishedwithin refugee camps and this explains the reason applicants arecritically identified to increase the safety of Canadians and otherrefugees. Another demonstration of refugee role in politics isfoundin the case study of Cop de tat in Uganda (Fisk, 2014). The Tutsirefugees in Uganda were used to overthrow the government of by thenpresident Milton Obote. If not well monitored for security purposes,the Canadian refugee program can present adverse security issues,and the liberalgovernment should put effective security programs to preventpotential terrorist association with these refugees.
Significanceof the Case Study
Argumentson the Significance of the Study and Involvement of Other Actors
Thestudy’s aim was to investigaterole liberal government plays in resettlement and integration of theSyrians refugees of wars in Canadian communities. Objectively, thegovernment-assistedrefugee program aimed at helping the Syrian victims of war have mademilestones so far since its beginning. As seen in previous studies,the management of this program involves a widerange of activities for the government, refugees, organizations suchas UNHCR, private sponsors and the citizens to execute. Specifically,on the part of the Canadians play in resettlement and integration,there are intense consultations in decision-making processes requiredto ensure smooth governance. Bruno(2015) reportedthat publicinvolvement gives ensures that public needs are addressedparticularly in the creationof peaceful co-existence between the refugees and hosts.By analyzing the principles, structure, objectives and keystakeholders in Canadian Refugee Program for Syrian refugees, thisstudy has comprehensively approached the essentials of publicadministration and governance.
Consequently,the knowledge gathered significantly contributes to the existing bodyof knowledge on similar or related topics. This purpose isguaranteedin the study’s access to diverse sources of information and casestudies during the development of its arguments and discussion. Suchand other aspects of this study make it appropriate for both academicand research purposes as a secondary material.
Inthis section, the study will look at the refugee programs from theimplementation perspective particularly on the key structures thatsupport the programs, barriers to and gaps in implementation.
KeyStructures Supporting Implementation
Thereare several tools that support the implementation of the currentrefugee program. These canbe the laws formulated to facilitate immigration and resettlementsincluding the Refugee Act (1980), Citizen Act (1946), Immigration andRefugee Protection Act (2001), Canadian Immigration Act andImmigration and National Act. These instruments have been mentionedtogether with their roles in refugee transport and resettlementearlier in this study. Other structures supporting the implementationare government and non-governmental institutions such as UNHCR, theDepartmentof Citizen Immigration Canada (CIC), and the Organization ofInternational Immigration (IIM). These structures are set to ensure asmoothmigration of refugees from their warring countries to resettlement inCanada (McGrath, & McGrath, 2013) while at the same timemaintaining law and order.
Barriersand Gaps in Implementation
Despitethe existence of governmental structures and laws to facilitateimmigration and resettlement of Syrian Refugees in Canada, there arebarriers to the implementation processes.
Thepotential barriers.Someof the barriers identified in this research include language andcultural aspects of the refugees. Thiscan discourage the refugee to apply since they are afraid of culturaldifferences (Balfour, Bundy, Burton, Dunn, & Woodrow, 2015). Theother barrier is fear of family break-upssince not all members ofthe family may want to go to Canada. The other barriers include theincreasing terrorism which may necessitate advanced processes thatare costly and time-consuming(Balfour et al., 2015). Moreover, lack of compliance to theestablished legal structures can pose a challengein implementation. Finally, lack of public participation can havedetrimental impacts onthe implementation process. As mentioned in class, publicconsultation and approval of some policies and programs that canimpact their lives areimportant.
Thegaps.Althoughthe government has focused on resettling the Syrians in Canada, thereare several gaps in implementation that can help improve the programs(Mccoy, Kirova, & Knight, 2016). For example, there is thelimitedinfluence of the Syrian government in the program in that it may bedifficult to understand their role in migration and resettlement ofSyrian refugees in a foreign Canada. The government is supposed tocare for its citizens, by establishing its efforts in assistingactivities of a good course (Neudorf,2016). Another gap exists between the privately sponsored programs and theGAR. There is no much information that describes the comparisonbetween the two programs particularly on economic, social andeducations development of the refugees. Probably filling this gapcan help improve refugee program entirely. Finally, there is a lackof information about disparate outcomes or adaptation responses amongdifferent groups of refugees in Canada. Thisis important because the program may have different impacts ondifferent people, and such understanding can help ensure all groupssatisfied.
TheKey Factors That Might Influence Policy Making Process in the Country
Thekey factors likely to influence decision-making to include the cost,exercising of democracy, and public participation. Governmentand the people have roles in the restorationof democracy when safeguarding human welfares. Thisis evident particularly on how the government conducts thetransportation and resettlement of Syrian refugees. In the casestudy, several methods of public participation and policyenforcements are evident in all the phases of the GAR program. Ascovered in class, policy formulation and implementation determineseveral factors of a country such as the economy,unity, and social structures.
Finally,this case study had a purpose ofidentifying the need for further research particularly on refugeewelfare programs with adherence to the democratic theories. Consequently, it achieved few things worth considering in themaintenance of the GAR program and development of the future policiesas discussed in the next section.
FutureConsiderationsKeyChallenge That May Limit the Operations of the Refugee Program
Theimplementation of refugee programs isassociatedwith several challenges that need to be addressed to ensure theireffectiveness in future. The greater challenge is the organizationand management of key resources to ensure that both refugees and thehosting communities are well preserved. According to Ostrand(2015), analysis of several programs around the world has revealedthat availability of resources determines the effectiveness ofhumanitarian services. For example, shortage of resources hasbeen found to cause conflicts between the hosting communities andrefugees. Particularly in Tanzania, Tutsirefugees caused havoc and internal lootingfrom the hosting communities for food, energy,and householditems (Garnier,2014).In the caseof thepopulationin Canadaexceed the resources available, the government can have difficultytimes trying not only to provide essential goods and services butin thepreventionof possible conflicts.Bauder (2016) advicethat government can continuously monitorthe trend in resource use while at the same time inventing new onesto avoid conflict ofinterests.
Theother challenge is in the maintenanceof national and internationalsecurity. The growing rateof terrorist activities creates tension between the refugee fromIslamic countries and localpeople. The government,therefore,should see that all screeningguideline for security purposes areupheldduring admission of refugees (Bruno, 2015). Finally, the breakdown ofdemocracy in Canadian society can challenge implementation of theseprograms. Thisoccurs when the public failsto participate either as sponsors of these programsor in decision-making. For this reason, the governmentshouldfocuson increasing public involvement to discourageinsufficientimplementation of these programs.
Recommendationfor the Government on Immigration of the Refugees into the Country
Resettlementprogram hasproved to be important both for the Syrian escaping wars and theCanadians in someways discussed earlier. However, there are things that government andstakeholders should put into consideration. First, the government andinvolved organizations such as UNHCR should strengthen theirscreening methods and technology for security purposes to ensurenational and international security. Thereasonbeing that global terrorism continues to increaseandany loophole in the program’s implementation can cause heavydamages and loss of lives to the Canadian.
Also,the governmentshould improve public involvement to ensure the feasibility of theprograms among other related decisions. The reason for this is thatresettlement programs should elevate the welfare of both the Syriansand the communities that receive them. Inthis case, it is imperative to ensurerequired resources are in place. More importantly, the governmentshould come up with programs for areas affected by refugeeresettlement to facilitate service delivery, economic progression,and social needs.
Thecurrent ruling party in Canada has adopted a Refugee program forSyrians aimed at helping them recover from the losses caused by thewarin their country. The initiative referred to as Canada`s Syrianrefugee program has seen the country resettle roughly 25,000 Syrianrefugees over the past one year. These Syrian have beenprovidedwith basic needs, employment to able adults, and education to thechildren. The effectiveness of the program has beenfacilitatedthrough the involvementof citizens, non-governmental organizations and private entities inthe provisionof services. However, analysis of the program reveals some negativeoutcomes such as depression of resources, insecurity issues, anddisruption of social beliefs. These negativities arethen balancedby the benefits the refugees have for both Canadian communities andeconomy. Such benefits include increasedtax generation, entrepreneurship,and promotion of peaceful coexistence among different races.
Successfulimplementation of this program has taken efforts from differentplayersofgovernmentsuch as Citizenship and Immigration department, and those ofnon-governmental organization including UNHCR. The roles played byeach entity are comprehensible through analysis the objectives andactivities in the five phases of the program.However, this analysis revealed few instances for consideration inthe furtheruse of the program ordevelopmentof new ones.Such include improvement of both security and public involvement toensure that Canadians are secure from threats of insecurity and theygive their thoughts on the project. Finally, further research isrecommendedfor improvements and effectiveness.
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