The Terrorist Threat
The Terrorist Threat 7
Accordingto Firth(2012), terrorismrefers to the intentional use of indiscriminate violence in creationof fear to advance religious, political and or ideological claim. Itis also categorized as a form of violent crime. The modern timesconsider terrorism is considered as a significant threat to thesociety. It is an illegal action under the anti-terrorism laws andregulations in most countries` jurisdictions. Terrorism is a warcrime on innocent people especially when this is directed towards thenon-combatants such as neutrality military personnel, civilians andeven the prisoners of wars.
Historyhas it that political organizations that have practiced terrorism toadvance and their objectives. Terrorism been practiced by politicalorganizations, religious, nationalist, ruling governments and evenrevolutionaries groups. Terrorism is particularly an effective courseagainst the democracies because the citizens are extremely sensitiveto casualties from the indiscriminate actions of terrorism (Gereluk,2012).This induces its leaders to grant the concession to the terroristfactions. On the other hand, the authoritarian regimes are responsivelimited to the preface of the ruling regime, and for this reason,they are less likely to accede to the demands from terrorists inresponse to need for civilian casualties.
Informationextracted from the Global Terrorism Database indicates that over 61,000 occurrences of terrorism happened and led to the death of over140, 000 lives from 2000 to 2014 (Gereluk,2012).This is a global threat to any democracy. There have been differentincidents that have been recorded including the most recent one thathappened in Egypt against the Coptic Christians. The ISIS groupclaimed responsibility for the bombing and death of over 40 peoplewho gathered up in a church to celebrate Palm Sunday.
Terrorismis instigated by different reasons. The terrorist groups usually workfor a democratic government to undermine its progress and smoothrunning. It is mostly directed against the collaborators, and this isused to threaten people from work together with the government toundermine and look down upon state control. This strategy has been inuse in different states especially in African countries. The attackson symbolic targets have been used to provoke to counter action bythe government to popularization. This attack though mentioned, thisstrategy was used in Al-Qaeda in attacks on the Pentagon AND WorldTrade Center in the US.
Terroristattacks and actions through history have been done on religiousgrounds with the aim of either spreading and or enforcing awidespread system of belief, opinion or viewpoint. The scope andvalidity of religious extremism are limited to a group or individualview or understanding of that knowledge teachings and systems.According to Global Terrorism Index, extremist based on religion hasovertaken national independence to become the principle driver ofterrorist attacks throughout the world. Since the occurrence of the9/11 attack, there has been a five-fold increase in deathsoccurrences and anarchy associated with the terrorist attacks.
Theacts of terrorism can be seen especially in the countries that haveterrorist groups. The actions and extremist inhuman works of theterrorists have been in different countries both in Africa and alsooutside Africa. The face of political change in the world isrevolutionary, and the aftermath possibly would have severeconsequences both horizontally and vertically around the globe. Thetrend is contradicting and kept in the same basket of space and time.Since the year 2001, the world has experienced related events ofterrorism. This has come with severe effects upon the people.Terrorism birthed grave human rights violation in the world. Forinstance, in Sudan in 2004 and Kenya, there were people executed as aresult of terrorism activities (Michael,2012).They have perpetrated genocide, honour killings and women andchildren trafficking along with severe attacks by the non-statemilitias.
Strategiesto curb terrorism
TheUnited States has remained one of the primary targets of terrorism.Its embassies in other countries have been attacked by the ISISgroup. In this regard, the homeland security has come up withstrategies to curb any threat occurrence of attacks on their soil,people nor resources. The terrorism activities have been morphingwith time to the more complex, high-agility and networked partnershipthat anticipate, disrupt, target and challenge national security,public safety and economic prosperity of the United States. Thehomeland security is partnering with other stakeholders inidentifying, investigating and interdicting threats in their earlystages (The United States, 2014), and expand the risk-based security.Homeland security is also committed focussing on countering violentextremism, mass attack prevention, vulnerability reduction throughresource denial and further uncover faint signals by the use ofanalysis and data integration.
Someof the strategies include identification, investigation, andinterdiction of any threats in their early stages. It was becomingdifficult to deal with extremism. The violent extremists can move inthrough the conflicts zones and borderlines undetected. Also, thereare other countries that are on the edge of failure and are incapableof securing their borders. These states cannot manage, secure customintegrity, and enforce law capacities. The security body willcontinue in the expansion of pre-departure screening and also enhancesecurity and associated operations to mitigate the risks that mightcome from overseas (Staniforth,2014).For the security team to keep off security threat individuals awayfrom anywhere close to the airport for the screening of thebroad-based risk, rather than for the people to arrive in the US.
Expansionof risk-based security
Thecomplex nature and demands of the current threats demandtransformation from the traditional security measures tointelligence-driven and risk-informed mechanisms. The department ofhomeland security has put in place efforts to identify the low-risktravellers, and luggage`s to focus the resources on the people leastknown and also those identified as risk. The team has alsointensified its security measures among the Trusted traveller andalso the shipper programs such as TSA Pre and Global Entry(Staniforth,2014).This ensures that the objectives of the security team are expedited,and there is a thorough check for the goods and people.
CounteringExtremist and Preventing Mass Casualty Attacks
Theefforts put in this particular area include emphasizing the strengthof communities and the premise that well-equipped and informedfamilies and local institutions represent defence and war againstextremism. Homeland Security has put in measures in deterring therecruitment and radicalization of the youth through supportingcommunity-based programs solutions and law enforcement programs.These programs include community-oriented policing,information-driven, and now for decades, these mechanisms have workedto mitigating other types of violent crimes.
Theextremes target symbolic venues, mass gatherings, transportationpathways, and critical infrastructure. For the enhanced protection ofthese targets, homeland security suggests the use of analytic-driven,intelligence-led and close cooperation between state, federal,tribal, territorial and even private sectors individuals (TheUnited States, 2014).The DHS has come up with a special security strategy for passengerrail and mass transit that illustrates the methodology in enhancingsecurity and resilience of essential surface infrastructure.
Enhancedata integration and analysis
TheDHS and other partners have invested in enhancing situationalawareness as a deterrent measure. DHS is committed to the integrationof data sources and consolidation of vetting operations andscreening. DHS is committed to the improvement of consumption andunderstanding of large amounts of intelligence it receives, the bigdata challenge (TheUnited States, 2014).It is its responsibility to do this for security purposes but do soand at the same time protecting the civil liberties and security ofthe Americans. The use of big data management will aid the analystsand investigators in relationship identification, something thatcould not be detected then. The patterns, type, and network analysisallow DHS and the associated partners to identify dangerousactivities in their early stages and also take the steps to directlyintervene or otherwise.
Firth,L. (2012). Terrorismand extremism (1sted.). Cambridge: Independence.
Gereluk,D. (2012). Education,Extremism, and Terrorism (1sted.). London: Bloomsbury Pub.
Michael,G. (2012). Confrontingright wing extremism and terrorism in the USA (1sted.). London: Routledge.
Staniforth,A. (2014). PreventingTerrorism and Violent Extremism (1sted.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
TheUnited States, Department of Homeland Security. (2014). The 2014Quadrennial Homeland Security Review. Retrieved March 22, 2017, fromhttps://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/2014-qhsr-final-508.pdf
Willis,L. (2012). Extremism (1sted.). Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
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