refers to a sudden and unexpected event that may cause intense fearand physical harm. Spirituality is an inner belief system that givespurpose and meaning to an individual’s life and a sense of howsacred life is. Spirituality also gives someone a vision for makingthe world a better place. It is a vital source of strength for thelives of people. This paper purposes to discuss the effects of traumaon neural development, how spiritual development can neutralize it,the prevalence in various cultures, and the determining factorscausing growth delays in a child exposed to trauma.
reduces the volume of the hippocampus, which is responsible forlearning and memory. The corpus callosum, the largest white matter,also suffers reduction due to trauma. It serves purposes such asarousal and emotion. also reduces the prefrontal cortex andcerebellum’s size. The former is responsible for behavior,cognition, and emotional regulation, while the latter helps mainly incoordinating motor behavior. can cause overactivity in theamygdala, which helps determine whether a stimulus is a threat andtrigger the appropriate emotional response. These effects lead to thesufferer having poor relationships, lack of empathy, socialisolation, impaired sensorimotor growth, coordination problems, andproblems with learning and memory(Rincón-Cortés, & Sullivan, 2014).
Spiritualityworks best when the victim of a traumatic experience has supportivepeople around them who inspire them to depend on God for relief andstrength. Roehlkepartain,King, Wagener & Benson (2016) argue that spiritualityhelps the victim by providing them with a chance to experiencehealing and empowerment. It also offers beliefs such as divinepunishment for the perpetrator and that God still loves the victim.Research has shown that prayer and meditation decrease stress(Bryant-Davis,& Wong, 2013).
Thedetermining factors that lead to developmental delays include geneticinfluences, said to be responsible for 15 to 25 percent ofdevelopmental delays (AlfordC., 2016).Other factors include environmental factors such as metabolicsyndromes, infections, lead poisoning, head injuries, and traumaticevents (Broderick& Blewitt, 2015).Prenatal factors include Rh incompatibility, toxemia, viralinfections, and drugs. Perinatal factors include prolonged laborslasting over 24 hours, birth weight, and head injuries during birth.Low birth weight increases the risk of having a lower IQ and mentalretardation. Postnatal factors include maternal deprivation and a lowsocioeconomic status (AlfordC., 2016).
results from various events. It is from the events that we get thetypes of trauma. Developmental trauma carries a broad range of suchordeals in a child. They include sexual assault, psychologicalmistreatment, neglect, witnessing violence, bullying, naturaldisasters, and war. People exposed to such events have a higherlikelihood of developing they type of trauma called thePost-tic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
Theprevalence of various types of trauma may vary according to culture.However, it is difficult to determine accurately how racial andethnic differences affect one’s susceptibility to trauma. Two pastresearch activities came up with different results. Breslau, whoconducted his research in 2006, found no statistical difference inPTSD among the various races, while Himle’s study in 2009 suggestedthat Blacks were at a higher risk of getting PTSD compared to Whites(AlfordC., 2016).
Examiningthe different rates of exposure to trauma is difficult becauseindividual traumatic events like earthquakes may only occur inspecific areas. It is hard to conduct research about a vast anddiverse group of people over an extended period to get results thatare more accurate. Differing viewpoints are hard to consider,analyze, and treat because of the high level of difficulty in doingso. This problem has led to a lack of a particular correlationbetween the rates of trauma and ethnicities and races (AlfordC., 2016).
has adverse effects on the human brain, which controls the responseto stimuli in people. Developmental delays often result from traumaand other environmental factors such as drugs. Spirituality enables avictim of trauma to recover quicker, making it a recommended therapyfor sufferers. There is an insufficiency of convincing evidence onwhether and how race and ethnicity influence the prevalence ofdifferent types of trauma. The reason for this inconsistency is thedifficulty in data collection and analysis for a large study sampleover an extended period.
AlfordC., C. F. (2016). ,Culture, and PTSD.Springer.
Broderick,C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). TheLife Span: Human Development for Helping Professionals.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bryant-Davis,T., & Wong, E. C. (2013). Faith to move mountains: religiouscoping, spirituality, and interpersonal trauma recovery. AmericanPsychologist, 68(8),675.
Rincón-Cortés,M., & Sullivan, R. M. (2014). Early life trauma and attachment:immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axisdevelopment.Topof Form
Roehlkepartain,E., King, P., Wagener, L., & Benson, P. (2016). Thehandbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
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